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REV. RICHARD PARKINSON, B.D., Canon of Manchester, Vice-President. 


GEORGE ORMEROD, Esq., D.C.L., F.R.S., F.S.A., F.G.S., Sedbury Park. 

SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE, Esq., M.D., F.R.S.E., Edinburgh. 





REV. F. R. RAINES, M.A, F.S.A., Milnrow Parsonage, hear Rochdale. 



WILLIAM LANGTON, Esq., Treasurer. 






fin t\)t Countp of Lancaster, 





Printed by Charles Simms and Co. 


Were not every chapter of the history of the human mind 
too precious an inheritance to be willingly relinquished, — 
for appalling as its contents may be, the value of the 
materials it may furnish may be inestimable, — we might 
otherwise be tempted to wish that the miserable record in 
which the excesses occasioned by the witch mania are nar- 
rated, could be struck out of its pages, and for ever cancelled. 
Most assuredly, he, who is content to take the fine exag- 
geration of the author of Hydriotaphia as a serious and literal 
truth, and who believes with him that " man is a glorious 
animal," must not go to the chapter which contains that 
record for his evidences and proofs. If he should be in 
search of materials for humiliation and abasement, he will 
find in the history of witchcraft in this country, from the 
beginning to the end of the seventeenth century, large and 
abundant materials, whether it affects the species or the 
individual. In truth, human nature is never seen in worse 
colours than in that dark and dismal review. Childhood, 
without any of its engaging properties, appears prematurely 
artful, wicked and cruel 1 ; woman, the victim of a wretched 

1 Take, as an instance, the children of Mr. Throgmorton, of Warbois, 
for bewitching whom, Mother Samuels, her husband, and daughter, suffered 
in 1593. No veteran professors "in the art of ingeniously tormenting" could 


and debasing bigotry, has yet so little of the feminine 
adjuncts, that the fountains of our sympathies are almost 
closed ; and man, tyrannizing over the sex he was bound to 
protect, in its helpless destitution and enfeebled decline, 
seems lost in prejudice and superstition and only strong 
in oppression. If we turn from the common herd to the 
luminaries of the age, to those whose works are the land- 
marks of literature and science, the reference is equally 
disappointing; — 

" The sun itself is dark 
And silent as the moon 
Hid in her vacant interlunar cave." 

have administered the question with more consummate skill than these 
little incarnate fiends, till the poor old woman was actually induced, from 
their confident asseverations and plausible counterfeiting, to believe at last 
that she had been a witch all her life without knowing it. She made a 
confession, following the story which they had prompted, on their assur- 
ances that it was the only means to restore them, and then was hanged 
upon that confession, to which she adhered on the scaffold. Few tracts 
present a more vivid picture of manners than that in which the account of 
this case of witchcraft is contained. It is perhaps the rarest of the English 
tracts relating to witchcraft, and is entitled " The most strange and admirable 
Discoverie of the three Witches of Warboys, arraigned, convicted, and 
executed at the last Assizes at Huntingdon, for the bewitching of the five 
daughters of Eobert Throckmorton, Esquire, and divers other persons with 
sundrie Devilish and grievous torments. And also for the bewitching to 
Death of the Lady Crumwell, the like hath not been heard of in this age. 
London, Printed by the Widdowe Orwin for Thomas Man and John Win- 
nington, and are to be sold in Paternoster Howe at the Signe of the Talbot." 
1593, 4to. My copy was Brand's, and formed Lot 8224 in his Sale 


We find the illustrious author of the Novum Organon sacri- 
ficing to courtly suppleness his philosophic truth, and gravely 
prescribing the ingredients for a witches' ointment; 1 — Raleigh, 
adopting miserable fallacies at second hand, without sub- 
jecting them to the crucible of his acute and vigorous 
understanding ; 2 — Selden, maintaining that crimes of the 
imagination may be punished with death; 3 — The detector of 
Vulgar Errors, and the most humane of physicians, 4 giving 
the casting weight to the vacillating bigotry of Sir Matthew 
Hale f. — Hobbes, ever sceptical, penetrating and sagacious, 

1 Lord Bacon thinks (see his Sylva Sylvarum) that soporiferous medicines 
" are likeliest" for this purpose, such as henbane, hemlock, mandrake, moon- 
shade, tobacco, opium, saffron, poplar leaves, &c. 

2 See his History of the World. 

3 See his Table Talk, section " Witches." 

4 Sir Thomas Browne's evidence at the trial of Amy Duny and Rose 
Cullender at Bury St. Edmunds in 1664, is too well known to need an 
extract from the frequently reprinted report of the case. To adopt the 
words of an able writer, (Retros. Review, vol. v. p. 118,) "this trial is the 
only place in which we ever meet with the name of Sir Thomas Browne 
without pleasurable associations." 

5 Those who wish to have presented to them a faithful likeness of Sir 
Matthew Hale must not consult Burnet or Baxter, for that great judge, like 
Sir Epicure Mammon, sought " for his meet flatterers the gravest of divines," 
but will not fail to find it in the pages of Roger North, who has depicted 
his character with a strength and accuracy of outline which no Vandyck or 
Lely of biography ever surpassed. Would that we could exchange some of 
those " faultless monsters" with which that fascinating department of literature 
too much abounds, for a few more such instantly recognised specimens of 
true but erring and unequal humanity, which are as rare as they are 
precious. In the unabridged life of Lord Guildford by Roger North, 
which, with his own most interesting and yet unpublished autobiography, 


yet here paralyzed, and shrinking from the subject as if 
afraid to touch it ;' — The adventurous explorer, who sounded 
the depths and channels of the "Intellectual System" along 
all the " wide watered " shores of antiquity, running after 
witches to hear them recite the Common Prayer and the 
Creed, as a rational test of guilt or innocence ; 2 — The gentle 
spirit of Dr. Henry More, girding on the armour of persecu- 
tion, and rousing itself from a Platonic reverie on the Divine 
Life, to assume the hood and cloak of a familiar of the 
Inquisition ; 3 — and the patient and enquiring Boyle, putting 

are in my possession in his autograph, are found some additional touches 
which confirm the general accuracy of the portrait he has sketched of 
Hale in the work which has heen printed. (Vide North's Life of Lord 
Guildford, hy Roscoe, vol. i. p. 119.) 

1 See his Dialogue on the Common Laws of England. 

2 Dr. Cudworth was the friend whom More refers to without naming, 
Collections of Relations, p, 336, edit. 1726, 8vo. 

3 There is no name in this catalogue that excites more poignant 
regret than that of Dr. Henry More. So exalted was his character, so 
serene and admirable his temper, so full of harmony his whole intellectual 
constitution, that, irradiated at once by all the lights of religion and philo- 
sophy, and with clearer glimpses of the land of vision and the glories 
behind the veil than perhaps uninspired mortality ever partook of before, 
he seems to have reached as near to the full standard of perfection as it is 
possible for frail and feeble humanity to attain. Dr. Outram said that he 
looked upon Dr. More as the holiest person upon the face of the earth ; 
and the sceptical Hobbes, who never dealt in compliment, observed, " That 
if his own philosophy were not true, he knew of none that he should 
sooner like than More's of Cambridge." His biographer, Ward, concludes 
his life in the following glowing terms : — "Thus lived and died the eminent 
Dr. More : thus set this bright and illustrious star, vanishing by degrees out 
of our sight after, to the surprise and admiration of many, (like that which 


aside for a while his searches for the grand Magisterium, 
and listening, as if spell-bound, with gratified attention to 
stories of witches at Oxford, and devils at Mascon. 1 Nor is it 
from a retrospect of our own intellectual progress only that 
we find how capricious, how intermitting, and how little 
privileged to great names or high intellects, or even to those 
minds which seemed to possess the very qualifications which 
would operate as conductors, are those illuminating gleams 
of common sense which shoot athwart the gloom, and aid 
a nation on its tardy progress to wisdom, humanity, and 
justice. If on the Continent there were, in the sixteenth 

was observed in Cassiopeia's chair,) it had illuminated, as it were, both 
worlds so long at once." At the lapse of many years I have not forgotten 
the impassioned fondness with which the late and most lamented Kobert 
Southey dwelt upon the memory of the Cambridge Plato, or the delight 
with which he greeted some works of his favourite author which I was 
fortunate enough to point out to him, with which he had not been previ- 
ously acquainted. The sad reverse of the picture will be seen by those 
who consult the folio of More's philosophical works and Glanville's Saddu- 
cismus Triumphatus, the greatest part of which is derived from More's 
Collections. His hallucinations on the subject of witchcraft, from which 
none of the English writers of the Platonic school were exempt, are the 
more extraordinary, as a sister error, judicial astrology, met in More with its 
most able oppugner. His tract, which has excited much less attention than 
its merit deserves, (I have not been able to trace a single quotation from it 
in any author during the last century,) is entitled " Tetractys Anti-astrologica, 
or a Confutation of Astrology." Lond. 1681, 4to. I may mention while on 
the subject of More, that the second and most valuable part of the memoir 
of him by Ward, his devoted admirer and pupil, which was never printed, 
is in my possession, in manuscript. 

1 See Boyle's letter on the subject of the latter, in the 5th vol. of the 
folio edition of his works. 


century, two men from whom an exposure of the absurdities 
of the system of witchcraft might have been naturally and 
rationally expected, and who seem to stand out prominently 
from the crowd as predestined to that honourable and salu- 
tary office, those two men were John Bodin 1 and Thomas 
Erastus. 2 The former a lawyer — much exercised in the affairs 
of men — whose learning was not merely umbratic — whose 
knowledge of history was most philosophic and exact — of 
piercing penetration and sagacity — tolerant — liberal 

1 I have always considered the conclusion of Bodin's book, Be Republican 
the accumulative grandeur of which is even heightened in Knolles's admi- 
rable English translation, as the finest peroration to be found in any work 
on government. Those who are fortunate enough to possess a copy of his 
interdicted Examination of Religions, the title of which is, " Colloquium 
heptaplomeres de abditis sublimium rerum arcanis, libris 6 digestum," which 
was never printed, and of which very few MSS. copies are in existence, are 
well aware how little he felt himself shackled in the spirit of examination 
which he carried into the most sacred subjects by any respect for popular 
notions or received systems or great authorities. My MS. copy of this 
extraordinary work, which came from Heber's Collection, is contained in 
two rather thick folio volumes. 

2 Few authors are better deserving of an extended biography, a desi- 
deratum which, in an age characterised by its want of literary research, is 
not likely to be soon supplied, than Thomas Erastus, whose theological, 
philosophical, and medical celebrity entitle him to rank with the greatest 
men of his century. At present we have to collect all that is known of his 
life from various scattered and contradictory sources. John Webster, in his 
Displaying of Supposed Witchcraft, contrary to the usual candour and fair- 
ness of his judgments, speaks slightingly of Erastus. There was, however, 
a sufficient reason for this. Erastus had shown up the empiricism of 
Webster's idol Paracelsus, and was in great disfavour with the writers of 
the Anti-Galenic school. 


minded — disposed to take no proposition upon trust, but 
to canvass and examine every thing for himself, and who 
had large views of human nature and society — in fact, the 
Montesquieu of the seventeenth century. The other, a phy- 
sician and professor, sage, judicious, incredulous, 

" The scourge of impostors, the terror of quacks," 

who had routed irrecoverably empiricism in almost every 
shape - Paracelsians - Astrologers- Alchemists- Rosicrucians 
— and who weighed and scrutinized and analyzed every 
conclusion, from excommunication and the power of the keys 
to the revolutions of comets and their supposed effects on 
empires, and all with perfect fearlessness and intuitive insight 
into the weak points of an argument. Yet, alas ! for human 
infirmity. Bodin threw all the weight of his reasoning and 
learning and vivacity into the scale of the witch supporters, 
and made the "hell-broth boil and bubble" anew, and in- 
creased the witch furor to downright fanaticism, by the 
publication of his Demo-manie} a work in which 

" Learning, blinded first and then beguiled, 
Looks dark as ignorance, as frenzy wild ;" 

but which it is impossible to read without being carried 

I cannot concur with Mr. Hallam in the extremely low estimate he 
forms of the literary merit of Bodin's Demomanie, which he does not seem 
to have examined with the care and impartiality which he seldom is 
deficient in. Like all Bodin's works, it has a spirit peculiarly his own, and 
is, in my opinion, one of the most entertaining books to be found in the 
circle of Demonology. 



along by the force of mind and power of combination which 
the author manifests, and without feeling how much inge- 
nious sophistry can perform to mitigate and soften the most 
startling absurdity. His contemporary, Erastus, after all 
his victories on the field of imposition, was foiled by the 
subject of witchcraft at last. This was his pet delusion — 
almost the only one he cared not to discard — like the dying 
miser's last reserve : — 

" My manor, sir ? he cried ; 

Not that, I cannot part with that, — and died." 

In his treatise Be Lamiis, published in 1577, 8vo., he defends 
nearly all the absurdities of the system with a blind zealotry 
which in such a man is very remarkable. His book has 
accordingly taken its place on the same shelf with Sprenger, 
Remigius, Delrio, and De Lancre, and deserves insertion 
only in a list which has yet to be made out, and which if 
accurately compiled would be a literary curiosity, of the sin- 
gularly illogical books of singularly able reasoners. What 
was left unaccomplished by the centurions of literature came 
ultimately from the strangest of all possible quarters ; from 
the study of an humble pupil of the transmuter of metals 
and prince of mountebanks and quacks — the expounder of 
Reuchlin de verbo mirifico^ and lecturer in the unknown 
tongues — the follower of Trismegistus — cursed with bell, 
book and candle, by every decorous Church in Christendom — 
the redoubted Cornelius Agrippa ; who, if he left not to his 
pupil Wierus the secret of the philosopher's stone or grand 
elixir, seems to have communicated a treasure perhaps equally 


rare and not less precious, the faculty of seeing a truth 
which should open the eyes of bigotry and dispel the mists 
of superstition, which should stop the persecution of the 
helpless and stay the call for blood. If, in working out this 
virgin ore from the mine, he has produced it mixed up with 
the scoria of his master's Occult Philosophy ; if he gives us 
catalogues of devils and spirits, with whose acquaintance 
we could have dispensed ; if he pleads the great truth faintly, 
inconsistently, imperfectly, and is evidently unaware of the 
strength of the weapons he wields ; these deductions do not 
the less entitle Wierus to take his place in the first rank of 
Humanity's honoured professors, the true philanthropists 
and noble benefactors of mankind. 

In our own country, it may be curious and edifying to 
observe to whom we mainly owe those enlightened views on 
this subject, which might have been expected to proceed in 
their natural channel, but for which we look in vain, from 
the " triumphant heirs of universal praise," the recognized 
guides of public opinion, whose fame sheds such a lustre on 
our annals, — the Bacons, the Raleighs, the Seldens, the 
Cudworths, and the Boyles. 

The strangely assorted and rather grotesque band to 
whom we are principally indebted for a vindication of out- 
raged common sense and insulted humanity in this instance, 
and whose vigorous exposition of the absurdities of the pre- 
vailing system, in combination with other lights and sources 
of intelligence, led at last to its being universally abandoned, 
consists of four individuals — on any of whom a literary 
Pharisee would look down with supercilious scorn: — a 


country gentleman, devoted to husbandry, and deep in plat- 
forms of hop gardens, l — a baronet, whose name for upwards 
of a century has been used as a synonyme for incurable 
political bigotry, 2 — a little, crooked, and now forgotten 
man, who died, as his biographer tells us, " distracted, occa- 
sioned by a deep conceit of his own parts, and by a continual 
bibbing of strong and high tasted liquors," 3 — and last, but 
not least assuredly, of one who was by turns a fanatical 
preacher and an obscure practitioner of physic, and who 
passed his old age at Clitheroe in Lancashire in attempting 
to transmute metals and discover the philosopher's stone. 4 
So strange a band of Apostles of reason may occasion a 
smile; it deserves, at all events, a little more particular 
consideration before we address ourselves to the short nar- 
ration which may be deemed necessary as an introduction to 
the republication which follows. 

Of the first of the number, Reginald or Reynold Scot, it 
is to be regretted that more particulars are not known. 
Nearly the whole are contained in the following information 
afforded by Anthony a Wood, A thence., vol. i. p. 297; from 
which it appears that he took to "solid reading" at a crisis of 
life when it is generally thrown aside. " Reynolde Scot, a 
younger son of Sir John Scot, of Scot's Hall, near to Smeeth, 
in Kent, by his wife, daughter of Reynolde Pimp, of Pimp's 
Court, Knight, was born in that county, and at about 17 years 
of age was sent to Oxon, particularly as it seems to Hart 
Hall, where several of his countrymen and name studied in 

1 Reginald Scot. 2 Sir R. Filmer. 3 John Wagstaffe. 4 John Webster. 



the latter end of K. Henry VIII. and the reign of Edward 
VI., &c. Afterwards he retired to his native country, with- 
out the honour of a Degree, and settled at Smeeth, where he 
found great encouragement in his studies from his kinsman, 
Sir Thomas Scot. About which time, taking to him a wife, 
he gave himself up solely to solid reading, to the perusing 
of obscure authors that had, by the generality of scholars, 
been neglected, and at times of leisure to husbandry and 
gardening. He died in September or October in 1599, and 
was buried among his ancestors, in the church at Smeeth 
before mentioned." Retired as his life and obscure as his 
death might be, he is one whose name will be remembered 
as long as vigorous sense, flowing from the " wells of English 
undefiled," hearty and radiant humour, and sterling patri- 
otism, are considered as deserving of commemoration. His 
Discoverie of Witchcraft, first published in 1584, is indeed 
a treat to him who wishes to study the idioms, manners, 
opinions, and superstitions of the reign of Elizabeth. Its 
entire title deserves to be given : — 

" The difcouerie of witchcraft, wherein the lewde dealing of 
witches and witchmongers is notablie detected, the knauerie 
of coniurors, the impietie of inchantors, the follie of footh- 
faiers, the impudent faljhood of coufenors, the infidelitie of 
atheijls, the pejiilent practifes of Pythonists, the curiositie of 
figurecafiers, the vanitie of dreamers, the beggerlie art of 
Alcumyfirie, the abhomination of idolatrie, the horrible art of 
poifoning, the vertue and power of naturall magike, and all 
the conueiances of Legierdemaine and iuggling are deciphered: 
and many other things opened, which haue long lien hidden, 


howbeit verie necejfarie to be knowne. Heerevnto is added a 
treatife vpon the nature and fubftance of fpirits and diuels, 
fyc: all latelie written by Reginald Scot Esquire. 1 John, 
4, 1. Beleeue not euerie fpirit but trie the fpirits, whether 
they are of God ; for many falfe prophets are gone out into 
the world, Sfc. 1584." 

This title is sufficient to show that he gives no quarter to 
the delusion he undertakes to expose, and though he does 
not deny that there may be witches in the abstract, (to 
have done so would have left him a preacher without an 
audience,) yet he guards so cautiously against any practical 
application of that principle, and battles so vigorously against 
the error which assimilated the witches of modern times 
to the witches of Scripture, and, denying the validity of the 
confessions of those convicted, throws such discredit and 
ridicule upon the whole system, that the popular belief 
cannot but have received a severe shock from the pub- 
lication of his work. 1 By an extraordinary elevation of 

1 In the epistle to his kinsman Sir Thomas Scot, prefixed to his Discoverie, 
he observes : — 

" I see among other malefactors manie poore old women conuented before 
you for working of miracles, other wise called witchcraft, and therefore I 
thought you also a meet person to whom I might commend my booke." — 
And he then proceeds, in the following spirited and gallant strain, to run 
his course against the Dagon of popular superstition : — 

" I therefore (at this time) doo onelie desire you to consider of my report, 
concerning the euidence that is commonlie brought before you against 
them. See first whether the euidence be not friuolous, & whether the 
proofs brought against them be not incredible, consisting of ghesses, pre- 
sumptions, & impossibilities contrarie to reason, scripture, and nature. See 


good sense, he managed, not only to see through the ab- 
surdities of witchcraft, but likewise of other errors which 

also what persons complaine vpon them, whether they be not of the basest, 
the vnwisest, & most faithles kind of people. Also may it please you to 
waie what accusations and crimes they laie to their charge, namelie : She 
was at my house of late, she would haue had a pot of milke, she departed 
in a chafe bicause she had it not, she railed, she curssed, she mumbled and 
whispered, and finallie she said she would be euen with me : and soone 
after my child, my cow, my sow, or my pullet died, or was strangelie taken. 
Naie (if it please your Worship) I haue further proofe : I was with a wise 
woman, and she told me I had an ill neighbour, & that she would come to 
my house yer it were long, and so did she ; and that she had a marke 
aboue hir waste, & so had she : and God forgiue me, my stomach hath 
gone against hir a great while. Hir mother before hir was counted a witch, 
she hath beene beaten and scratched by the face till bloud was drawne 
vpon hir, bicause she hath beene suspected, & afterwards some of those 
persons were said to amend. These are the certeinties that I heare in 
their euidences. 

"Note also how easilie they may be brought to confesse that which they 
neuer did, nor lieth in the power of man to doo : and then see whether I 
haue cause to write as I doo. Further, if you shall see that infidelitie, 
poperie, and manie other manifest heresies be backed and shouldered, and 
their professors animated and hartened, by yeelding to creatures such infinit 
power as is wrested out of Gods hand, and attributed to witches : finallie, if 
you shall perceiue that I haue faithfullie and trulie deliuered and set downe 
the condition and state of the witch, and also of the witchmonger, and haue 
confuted by reason and lawe, and by the word of God it selfe, all mine 
aduersaries obiections and arguments : then let me haue your countenance 
against them that maliciouslie oppose themselues against me. 

" My greatest aduersaries are yoong ignorance and old custome. For 
what follie soeuer tract of time hath fostered, it is so superstitiouslie pur- 
sued of some, as though no error could be acquainted with custome. But 
if the lawe of nations would ioine with such custome, to the maintenance 


long maintained their hold upon the learned as well as the 
vulgar. Indeed, if not generally more enlightened, he was, 

of ignorance, and to the suppressing of knowledge ; the ciuilest countrie in 
the world would soone become barbarous, &c. For as knowledge and time 
discouereth errors, so dooth superstition and ignorance in time breed them." 

The passage which I next quote, is a further specimen of the impressive 
and even eloquent earnestness with which he pleads his cause : — 

" In the meane time, I would wish them to know that if neither the 
estimation of Gods omnipotencie, nor the tenor of his word, nor the doubt- 
fulnes or rather the impossibilitie of the case, nor the small proofes brought 
against them, nor the rigor executed vpon them, nor the pitie that should be 
in a christian heart, nor yet their simplicitie, impotencie, or age may suffice 
to suppresse the rage or rigor wherewith they are oppressed ; yet the consi- 
deration of their sex or kind ought to mooue some mitigation of their 
punishment. For if nature (as Plinie reporteth) haue taught a lion not to 
deale so roughlie with a woman as with a man, bicause she is in bodie the 
weaker vessell, and in hart more inclined to pitie (which Ieremie in his 
lamentations seemeth to confirme) what should a man doo in this case, for 
whome a woman was created as an helpe and comfort vnto him ? In so 
much as, euen in the lawe of nature, it is a greater offense to slea a woman 
than a man: not bicause a man is not the more excellent creature, but 
bicause a woman is the weaker vessell. And therefore among all modest 
and honest persons it is thought a shame to offer violence or iniurie to a 
woman : in which respect Virgil saith, Nullum memorabile nomen foeminea 
in poena est. 

" God that knoweth my heart is witnes, and you that read my booke 
shall see, that my drift and purpose in this enterprise tendeth onelie to 
these respects. First, that the glorie and power of God be not so abridged 
and abased, as to be thrust into the hand or lip of a lewd old woman : 
whereby the worke of the Creator should be attributed to the power of a 
creature. Secondlie, that the religion of the gospell may be seene to stand 
without such peeuish trumperie. Thirdlie, that lawfull fauour and christian 
compassion be rather vsed towards these poore soules, than rigor and 


in some respects, more emancipated from delusion than even 
his great successor, the learned and sagacious Webster, who, 
a century after, clung still to alchemy which Reginald 
Scot had ridiculed and exposed. Yet with all its strong 
points and broad humour, it is undeniable that The Discoverie 
of Witchcraft only scotched the snake instead of killing it ; 
and that its effect was any thing but final and complete. 
Inveterate error is seldom prostrated by a blow from one 
hand, and truth seems to be a tree which cannot be forced 
by planting it before its time. There was something, too, 
in the book itself which militated against its entire accept- 
ance by the public. It is intended to form a little Encyclo- 
paedia of the different arts of imposition practised in Scot's 

extremitie. Bicause they, which are commonlie accused of witchcraft, are 
the least sufficient of all other persons to speake for themselues ; as hauing 
the most base and simple education of all others ; the extremitie of their 
age giuing them leaue to dote, their pouertie to beg, their wrongs to chide 
and threaten (as being void of anie other waie of reuenge) their humor 
melancholicall to be full of imaginations, from whence cheefelie proceedeth 
the vanitie of their confessions ; as that they can transforme themselues and 
others into apes, owles, asses, dogs, cats, &c: that they can flie in the aire, 
kill children with charmes, hinder the comming of butter, &c. 

" And for so much as the mightie helpe themselues together, and the 
poore widowes crie, though it reach to heauen, is scarse heard here vpon 
earth : I thought good (according to my poore abilitie) to make intercession, 
that some part of common rigor, and some points of hastie iudgement may 
be aduised vpon. For the world is now at that stay (as Brentius in a most 
godlie sermon in these words affirmeth) that euen as when the heathen 
persecuted the christians, if anie were accused to beleeue in Christ, the 
common people cried Ad leonem : so now, if anie woman, be she neuer so 
honest, be accused of witchcraft, they crie Ad ignem" 



time; and in order to illustrate the various tricks and modes 
of cozenage, he gives us so many charms and diagrams and 
conjurations, to say nothing of an inventory of seventy- 
nine devils and spirits, and their several seignories and 
degrees, that the Occult Philosophy of Cornelius Agrippa 
himself looks scarcely less appalling, at first sight, than the 
Discoverie. This gave some colour to the declamation of 
the author's opponents, who held him up as Wierus had been 
represented before him, as if he were as deeply dipped in 
diabolical practises as any of those whom he defended. 
Atheist and Sadducee, if not very wizard himself, were 
the terms in which his name was generally mentioned, and 
as such, the royal author of the Demonology anathematizes 
him with great unction and very edifying horror. Against 
the papists, the satire of Scot had been almost as much 
directed as against what he calls the "witch-mongers," so 
that that very powerful party were to a man opposed to him. 
Vigorous, therefore, as was his onslaugh, its effect soon 
passed by ; and when on the accession of James, the statute 
which so long disgraced our penal code was enacted, as the 
adulatory tribute of all parties, against which no honest 
voice was raised, to the known opinions of the monarch, 
Scot became too unfashionable to be seen on the tables of 
the great or in the libraries of the learned. If he were 
noticed, it was only to be traduced as a sciolist, (imperitus 
dialectics et aliarum bonarum artium, says Dr. Reynolds,) 
and to be exposed for imagined lapses in scholarship in an 
age when for a writer not to be a scholar, was like a 
traveller journeying without a passport. Meric Casaubon, 


who carried all the prejudices of the time of James the first 
into the reign of Charles the second, but who, though over- 
shadowed by the fame of his father, was no unworthy scion 
of that incomparable stock, at the same time that he 
denounces Scot as illiterate, will only acknowledge to having 
met with him " at friends houses' 1 and " booksellers shops," 
as if his work were one which would bring contamination to 
a scholar's library. Scot was certainly not a scholar in the 
sense in which the term is applied to the Scaligers, Casaubons, 
and Vossius's, though he would have been considered a 
prodigy of reading in these days of superficial acquisition. 
But he had original gifts far transcending scholarship. 
He had a manly, straightforward, vigorous understanding, 
which, united with an honest integrity of purpose, [kept 
him right when greater men went wrong. How invaluable 
a phalanx would the battalion of folios which the reign of 
James the first produced now afford us, if the admirable 
mother-wit and single-minded sincerity of Reginald Scot 
could only have vivified and informed them. 1 

1 In the intervening period between the publication of Scot's work and 
the advertisement of Filmer, several books came out on the subject of 
witchcraft. Amongst them it is right to notice " A Dialogue concerning 
Witches and Witchcraft, by George Giifard, Minister of God's Word in 
Maldon," 1593, 4to. This tract, which has been reprinted by the Percy 
Society, is not free from the leading fallacies which infected the reasonings 
of almost all the writers on witchcraft. It is, nevertheless, exceedingly 
entertaining, and well deserves a perusal, if only as transmitting to us, in 
their full freshness, the racy colloquialisms of the age of Elizabeth. It is 
to be hoped that the other works of Giffard, all of which are deserving of 
attention, independently of their theological interest, as specimens of pure 


After the lapse of another half century, and at the very 
period when the persecution against witches waxed hotter, 

and sterling English, may appear in a collected form. The next tract 
requiring notice is "The Trial of Witchcraft, by John Cotta," 1616, 4to, 
of which a second and enlarged edition was published in 1624. Cotta, 
who was a physician of great eminence and experience, residing at 
Northampton, has supplied in this very able, learned, and vigorous treatise, 
a groundwork which, if pursued to its just results, for he writes very 
cautiously and guardedly, and rather hints at his conclusions than follows 
them out, would have sufficed to have overthrown many of the positions of 
the supporters of the system of witchcraft. His work has a strong scho- 
lastic tinge, and is not without occasional obscurity ; and on these accounts 
probably produced no very extensive impression at the time. He wrote 
two other tracts — 1. "Discovery of the Dangers of ignorant practisers of 
Physick in England," 1612, 4to; 2. "Cotta contra Antonium, or An Ant- 
Anthony," Oxford, 1623, 4to; the latter of which, a keen satire against 
the chymists' aurum potabile, is exceedingly rare. Both are intrinsically 
valuable and interesting, and written with great vigour of style, and are 
full of curious illustrations derived from his extensive medical practice. I 
cannot conclude this note without adverting to Gaule's amusing little work, 
("Select Cases of Conscience touching Witches and Witchcraft, by John 
Gaule, Preacher of the Word at Great Haughton, in the county of Hun- 
tingdon," 1646, 24mo.) which gives us all the casuistry applicable to witch- 
craft. We can almost forgive Gaule's fundamental errors on the general 
question, for the courage and spirit with which he battled with the villainous 
witchfinder, Hopkins, who wanted sorely to make an example of him, to 
the terror of all gainsayers of the sovereign power of this examiner-general 
of witches. Gaule proved himself to be an overmatch for the itinerating 
inquisitor, and so effectually attacked, battled with, and exposed him, as to 
render him quite harmless in future. The minister of Great Haughton was 
made of different metal to the " old reading parson Lewis," or Lowes, to 
whose fate Baxter refers with such nonchalance. As the only clergyman 
of the Church of England, that I am aware of, who was executed for 


and the public prejudice had become only more inveterate, 
from the ingredient of fanaticism having been largely thrown 

witchcraft, Lewis's case is sufficiently interesting to merit some notice. 
Stearne's (vide his Confirmation of Witchcraft, p. 23,) account of it, which 
I have not seen quoted before, is as follows :— 

" Thus was Parson Lowis taken, who had been a Minister, (as I have 
heard) in one Parish above forty yeares, in Suffolke, before he was con- 
demned, but had been indited for a common imbarriter, and for Witchcraft, 
above thirty yeares before, and the grand Jury (as I have heard) found the 
bill for a common imbarriter, who now, after he was found with the markes, 
in his confession, he confessed, that in pride of heart, to be equall, or rather 
above God, the Devill tooke advantage of him, and hee covenanted with 
the Devill, and sealed it with his bloud, and had three Familiars or spirits, 
which sucked on the markes found upon his body, and did much harme, 
both by Sea and Land, especially by Sea, for he confessed, that he being at 
Lungarfort in Suffolke, where he preached, as he walked upon the wall, or 
workes there, he saw a great saile of Ships passe by, and that as they were 
sailing by, one of his three Impes, namely his yellow one, forthwith appeared 
to him, and asked him what hee should doe, and he bade it goe and sinke 
such a Ship, and shewed his Impe a new Ship, amongst the middle of the rest 
(as I remember) one that belonged to Ipswich, so he confessed the Impe 
went forthwith away, and he stood still, and viewed the Ships on the Sea 
as they were a sayling, and perceived that Ship immediately, to be in more 
trouble and danger then the rest ; for he said, the water was more boystrous 
neere that then the rest, tumbling up and down with waves, as if water 
had been boyled in a pot, and soone after (he said) in a short time it sanke 
directly downe into the Sea, as he stood and viewed it, when all the rest 
sayled away in safety, there he confessed, he made fourteen widdowes in 
one quarter of an houre. Then Mr. Hopkin, as he told me (for he tooke 
his Confession) asked him, if it did not grieve him to see so many men cast 
away, in a short time, and that he should be the cause of so many poore 
widdowes on a suddaine, but he swore by his maker, no, he was joy full to 
see what power his Impes had, and so likewise confessed many other 


in as a stimulant, another ally to the cause of compassion 
and common sense started up, in the person of one whose 

mischiefes, and had a cliarme to keep him out of Goale, and hanging, as he 
paraphrased it himselfe, but therein the Devill deceived him ; for he was 
hanged, that Michaelmas time 1645. at Burie Saint Edmunds, but he made 
a very farre larger confession, which I have heard hath been printed : but 
if it were so, it was neither of Mr. Hopkins doing nor mine owne ; for we 
never printed anything untill now." 

Hutchinson gives the explanation of this confession. What can be more 
atrocious than the whole story, which is yet but the common story of 
witch confessions ? 

" Adv. Then did not he confess this before the Commissioners, at the 
Time of his Tryal ? 

" Clerg. No, but maintained his Innocence stoutly, and challenged them 
to make Proof of such Things as they laid to his Charge. I had this from 
a Person of Credit, who was then in Court, and heard his Tryal. I may 
add, that tho' his Case is remembered better than others that suffered, yet 
I never heard any one speak of him, but with great Compassion, because of 
his Age and Character, and their Belief of his Innocence : And when he 
came to his Execution, because he would have Christian Burial, he read 
the Office himself, and that way committed his own Body to the Ground, 
in sure and certain Hope of the Kesurrection to eternal Life. 

" In the Notes upon those Verses that I quoted out of Hudibras, it is said, 
that he had been a painful Preacher for many Years, I may add for Fifty, 
for so long he had been Vicar of Brandeston in the County of Suffolk, as 
appears by the Time of his Institution. That I might know the present 
Sense of the Chief Inhabitants of that Place, I wrote to Mr. Wilson, the 
Incumbent of that Town, and by his Means received the following Letter 
from Mr. Kivett, a worthy Gentleman who lived lately in the same Place, 
and whose Father lived there before him. 


"'In Answer to your Request concerning Mr. Lowes, my Father was 
always of the opinion, that Mr. Lowes suffered wrongfully, and hath often 


name has rounded many a period and given point to many 
an invective. To find the proscribed author of the Patri- 
archa purging with "euphrasy and rue" the eyes of the 
dispensers of justice, and shouldering the crowd to obtain 
for reason a fair and impartial hearing, is indeed like meet- 
ing with Saul among the prophets. If there be one name 
which has been doomed to run the gauntlet, and against 
which every pert and insolent political declaimer has had 
his fling, it is that of this unfortunate writer; yet in his 
short but masterly and unanswerable "Advertisement to 
the Jurymen of England, touching Witches, together with a 
difference between an English and Hebrew Witch," first 
published in 1653, 4to., he has addressed himself so cogently 
and decisively to the main fallacy of the arguments in favour 
of witchcraft which rested their force on Scripture misunder- 
stood, and has so pertinently and popularly urged the points 
to be considered, that his tract must have had the greatest 
weight on the class to whom his reasoning was principally 
addressed, and on whose fiat the fates of his unhappy clients 
may" be said to have hung. For this good service, reason 
and common sense owe Sir Robert Filmer a debt which 
does not yet appear to have been paid. The verdict of 

said, that lie did believe, lie was no more a Wizzard than he was. I have 
heard it from them that watched with him, that they kept him awake 
several Nights together, and run him backwards and forwards about the 
Room, until he was out of Breath : Then they rested him a little, and then 
ran him again : And thus they did for several Days and Nights together, 
till he was weary of his Life, and was scarce sensible of what he said or did. 
They swam him at Framlingham, but that was no true Rule to try him by; for 
they put in honest People at the same Time, and they swam as well as he." 


proscription against him was pronounced by the most in- 
competent and superficial sera of our literature, and no 
friendly appellant has yet moved the court of posterity for 
its reversal. Yet without entering upon the theory of the 
patriarchal scheme, which after all, perhaps, was not so 
irrational as may be supposed, or discussing on an occasion 
like the present the conflicting theories of government, it 
may be allowable to express a doubt whether even the 
famous author of the " Essay on the Human Understanding," 
to whose culminating star the decadence of the rival in- 
telligence is attributable, can be shewn to have been as 
much in advance of his generation in the time of king 
William, as from the tract on witchcraft, and another 
written on a different subject, but with equally enlightened 
views, 1 Sir Robert Filmer manifestly appears to have 
outrun his at the period of the usurpation. 2 

1 I allude to his little tract on Usury. 

2 Between the period of the publication of Filmer's Advertisement and 
the appearance of Wagstaffe's work, a tract was published too important in 
this controversy to be passed over without notice. It is entitled A Candle 
in the Dark, or a Treatise concerning the Nature of Witches and Witchcraft; 
being Advice to Judges, Sheriffs, Justices of the Peace, and Grand Jurymen, 
what to do before they passe sentence on such as are arraigned for their lives 
as Witches. By Thomas Ady, M.A. London, printed for R. J., to be sold by 
Thomas Newberry, at the Three Lions in Cornhill, by the Exchange, 1656, 
4to. Ady, of whom, unfortunately, nothing is known, presses the argu- 
ments against the witchmongers and witchfinders with unanswerable force. 
In fact, this tract comprises the quintessence of all that had been urged 
against the popular system, and his "Candle" was truly a burning and a 
shining light. His Dedication is too curious to be omitted : — 

" To the Prince of the Kings of the Earth. It is the manner of men, 
O heavenly King, to dedicate their books to some great men, thereby to 


The next champion in this unpopular cause, John Wag- 
staffe, who published "The Question of Witchcraft Debated," 
1669, 12H10, 1 was, as A. a Wood informs us, "the son of 
John Wagstaffe, citizen of London, descended from those 
of his name of Hasland Hall, in Derbyshire, was born in 
Cheapside, within the city of London, became a commoner 
of Oriel College in the latter end of 1649, took the degrees 
in Arts, and applied himself to the study of politics and 
other learning. At length, being raised from an academical 
life to the inheritance of Hasland, by the death of an uncle, 

have their works protected and countenanced among them ; but thou only 
art able, by thy holy Spirit of Truth, to defend thy Truth, and to make it 
take impression in the heart and understanding of men. Unto thee alone do 
I dedicate this work, entreating thy Most High Majesty to grant, that who- 
ever shall open this book, thy holy Spirit may so possess their understanding, 
as that the Spirit of errour may depart from them, and that they may read 
and try thy Truth by the touchstone of thy Truth, the holy Scriptures ; and 
finding that Truth, may embrace it and forsake their darksome inventions 
of Antichrist, that have deluded and defiled the nations now and in former 
ages. Enlighten the world, thou that art the Light of the World, and let 
darkness be no more in the world, now or in any future age ; but make all 
people to walk as children of the Light for ever ; and destroy Antichrist, 
that hath deceived the nations, and save us the residue by thyself alone ; 
and let not Satan any more delude us, for the Truth is thine for ever." 
He then puts his " Dilemma that cannot be answered by Witchmongers." 
It is too long to quote, but it is a dilemma that would pose the stoutest 
Coryphaeus of the party to whom he addressed himself. 

1 I have not seen his earlier work, " Historical Reflections on the Bishop 
of Rome, &c." Oxford, 1660, 4to. If it be written with any portion ot 
the power evinced in his " Question of Witchcraft Debated," the ridicule 
with which Wood says it was received by the wits of the university, and 
the oblivion into which it subsequently fell, were both equally undeserved. 



who died without male issue, he spent his life afterwards in 
single estate." His death took place in 1677. The Oxford 
historian, who had little reverence for new lights, and never 
loses an opportunity of girding at those whose weights and 
measures were not according to the current and only 
authentic standard, has left no very nattering account of 
his person. " He was a little crooked man, and of a despi- 
cable presence. He was laughed at by the boys of this 
University, because, as they said, he himself looked like a 
little wizard." Small as might be his stature, and question- 
able the shape in which he appeared, he might still have 
taken up the boast of the author of the Religio Medici: 
" Men that look upon my outside do err in my altitude, for 
I am above Atlas's shoulders." None but a large-souled and 
kindly-affectioned man, whose intellect was as comprehensive 
as his feelings were benevolent, could have produced the 
excellent little treatise which claims him as its author. The 
following is the lofty and memorable peroration in which he 
sums up the strength of his cause : — 

" I cannot think without trembling and horror on the vast 
numbers of people that in several ages and several countries 
have been sacrificed unto this idol, Opinion. Thousands, ten 
thousands, are upon record to have been slain, and many of 
them not with simple deaths, but horrid, exquisite tortures. 
And yet, how many are there more who have undergone the 
same fate, of whom we have no memorial extant. Since, 
therefore, the opinion of witchcraft is a mere stranger unto 
Scripture, and wholly alien from true religion ; since it is 
ridiculous by asserting fables and impossibilities; since it 


appears, when duly considered, to be all bloody and full of 
dangerous consequence unto the lives and safety of men ; 
I hope that with this my Discourse, opposing an absurd and 
pernicious error, I can not at all disoblige any sober, unbi- 
assed person ; especially if he be of such ingenuity as to 
have freed himself from a slavish subjection unto those pre- 
judicial opinions which custom and education do with too 
much tyranny impose. — If the doctrine of witchcraft should 
be carried up to a height, and the inquisition after it should 
be intrusted in the hands of ambitious, covetous and mali- 
cious men, it would prove of far more fatal consequence unto 
the lives and safety of mankind, than that ancient, hea- 
thenish custom of sacrificing men unto idol gods ; insomuch 
that we stand in need of another Hercules Liberator, who, as 
the former freed the world from human sacrifice, should, in 
like manner, travel from country to country, and by his 
all-commanding authority, free it from this euil and base 
custom of torturing people to confess themselves witches, 
and burning them after extorted confessions. Surely the 
blood of men ought not to be so cheap, nor so easily to be 
shed by those who, under the name of God, do gratifie 
exorbitant passions and selfish ends; for without question, 
under this side heaven, there is nothing so sacred as the life 
of man ; for the preservation whereof all policies and forms 
of government, all laws and magistrates are most especially 
ordained. Wherefore I presume that this Discourse of 
mine, attempting to prove the vanity and impossibility of 
witchcraft, is so far from any deserved censure and blame, 
that it rather deserves commendation and praise, if I can 


in the least measure contribute to the saving of the lives 
of men." 

Wagstaffe was answered by Meric Casaubon in his trea- 
tise "Of Credulity and Incredulity in Things Divine and 
Spiritual," 1670, 12mo ; and if his reply be altogether incon- 
clusive, it cannot be denied to be, as indeed every thing of 
Meric Casaubon's writing was, learned, discursive and enter- 
taining. He observes of Wagstaffe : — 

" He doth make some show of a scholar and a man of some 
learning, but whether he doth acquit himself as a gentleman 
(which I hear he is) in it, I shall leave to others to judge." 
This is surely the first time that a belief in witchcraft was 
ever made a test of gentlemanly propriety. 

Two years before the trial, which is the subject of the 
following republication, took place, the hamlet of Thornton, 
in the parish of Cox wold, in the adjoining county of York, 
gave birth to one who was destined so utterly to demolish 
the unstable and already shaken and tottering structure 
which Bodin, Delrio, and their followers had set up, as not 
to leave one stone of that unhallowed edifice remaining 
upon another. Of the various course of life of John 
Webster, the author of " The Displaying of supposed Witch- 
craft," his travels, troubles, and persecutions; of the ex- 
perience he had had in restless youth and in unsettled 
manhood of religion under various forms, amongst reli- 
gionists of almost every denomination ; and of those profound 
and wide-ranging researches in every art and science in 
which his vigorous intellect delighted, and by which it was 
in declining age enlightened, sobered and composed; it is 


much to be regretted that we have not his own narrative, 
written in the calm evening of his days, when he walked the 
slopes of Pendle, from where, 

" Through shadow dimly seen 
Rose Clid'row's castle grey ;" 1 

when, to use his own expressions, he lived a " solitary and 
sedentary life, mihi et musts, having more converse with the 
dead than the living, that is, more with books than with 
men." The facts for his biography are scanty and meagre, 
and are rather collected by inference from his works, than 
from any other source. He was born at Thornton on the 3rd 
of February, 1610. From a passing notice of A. a Wood, 
and an incidental allusion in his own works, he may be pre- 
sumed to have passed some time at Cambridge, though with 
what views, or at what period of his life, is uncertain. He 
was ordained Presbyter by Dr. Morton, when Bishop of 
Durham, who was, it will be recollected, the sagacious pre- 
late by whom the frauds of the boy of Bilson were detected. 
In the year 1634, Webster was curate of Kildwick in Cra- 
ven, and while in that cure the scene occurred which he has 
so vividly sketched in the passage after quoted, and which 
supplied the hint, and laid the foundation, for the work 

1 "Poems, by the Rev. R. Parkinson, Canon of Manchester," 1845, 12mo. 
(Hunter's Song.) A most pleasing volume of a very accomplished author. 
Long may he survive to add honours to the ancient stock of which he has 
given so interesting an account, by well-earned trophies gathered from the 
fair fields of literature and theology, and by a most exemplary discharge of 
the appropriate duties of his own sacred profession. 



which has perpetuated his fame. How long he continued in 
this cure we know not : but, if one authority may be relied 
on, he was Master of the Free Grammar School at Clitheroe 
in 1643. To this foundation he may be considered as a great 
benefactor, for, from information supplied from a manuscript 
source, I find that he recovered for its use, with considerable 
trouble and no small personal charge, an income of about £60. 
per annum, which had been given to the school, but was ille- 
gally diverted and withheld. From this period there is a 
blank in his biography for about ten years. Most probably 
his life was rambling and desultory. He speaks of himself as 
having been about that time a chaplain in the army. His 
first two works, published in 1653 and 1654, "The Saints' 
Guide," and " The Judgment Set and the Books Opened," 1 

i " The Saints Guide, or Christ the Rule and Ruler of Saints. Manifested 
by way of Positions, Consectaries, and Queries. Wherein is contained the 
Efficacy of Acquired Knowledge ; the Rule of Christians ; the Mission and 
Maintenance of Ministers; and the Power of Magistrates in Spiritual 
Things. By John Webster, late Chaplain in the Army!' London, 1653, 4to. 

" The Judgement Set, and the Bookes Opened. Religion Tried whether 
it be of God or of men. The Lord cometh to visit his own, For the time is 
come that Judgement must begin at the House of God. 

( The Sheep from the Goats, 

To separate 


\ The Precious from the Vile. 
And to discover the Blasphemy of those that say, 

They are 


Found Lyars, 




'but are* 



Poore, blind, naked, 

l Jewes, 

< The Synagogue of Satan. 


show that in the interval he had deserted the Established 
Church, and, probably, after some of those restless fluctuations 
of belief to which men of his ardent temperament are subject, 
settled at last in a wilder sort of Independency, which he 
eulogizes as " unmanacling the simple and pure light of the 
Gospel from the chains and fetters of cold and dead forma- 
lity, and of restrictive and compulsory power." His lan- 
guage in these two works is more assimilated to that of the 
Seekers or Quakers, which it resembles in the cloudy mys- 
teriousness of its phraseology, than that of the more rational 
and sober writers of the Independent school. Amongst the 
dregs of fanaticism of which they consist, the reader will 
look in vain for any germ or promise of future excellence or 
distinction as an author. It would seem that he preached 
the sermons contained in " The Judgment Set and Books 
Opened " at the church of All-Hallows, Lombard-street, at 
which he must have been for some time the officiating 
minister, and where the amusing incident, in which Webster 
was concerned, narrated by Wood, which had many a parallel 
in those times, no doubt occurred. " On the 12th of Oct., 
1653," says the author of the Athence., 1 "he (t* e. William 

In severall Sermons at Alhallows Lumbar d-street, By John Webster, A 
servant of Christ and his Church. Micah 3. 5. fyc. Thus saith the Lord, 
concerning the Prophets that make my people erre, that bite with their teeth, 
and cry peace : and he that putteth not into their mouths, they prepare war 
against him : Therefore night shall be upon them, that they shall not have a 
vision, fyc. The Sun shall goe down over the prophets, and the Day shall be 
dark. Their seers shall be ashamed, and the Deviners confounded : yea, 
they shall All cover their lips, for there is no answer of God." London, 
1654, 4to. 

1 Athen. Ozon., Vol. ii., p. 175. Edit. 1721. 


Erbury) with John Webster, sometimes a Cambridge scholar, 
endeavoured to knock down learning and the ministry both 
together, in a disputation that they then had against two 
ministers in a church in Lombard-street, in London. Erbury 
then declared that the wisest ministers and purest churches 
were at that time befool'd, confounded, and defil'd, by reason 
of learning. Another while he said, that the ministry were 
monsters, beasts, asses, greedy dogs, false prophets ; and that 
they are the Beast with seven heads and ten horns. The 
same person also spoke out and said that Babylon is the Church 
in her ministers, and that the Great Whore is the Church 
in her worship, &c. ; so that with him there was an end of 
ministers and churches and ordinations altogether. While 
these things were babbled to and fro, the multitude being 
of various opinions, began to mutter, and many to cry out, 
and immediately it came to a meeting or tumult, (call it 
which you please,) wherein the women bore away the Bell, but 
lost some of them their kerchiefs : and the dispute being hot, 
there was more danger of pulling down the church than the 
ministry." 1 

Of Erbury who, being originally in holy orders and a 
beneficed clergyman, deserted the Established Church and 
ran into all the excesses of Antinomianism, Webster was a 
great admirer, and has in a preface, hitherto unnoticed, 
prefixed to a scarce tract of Erbury's, entitled " The great 
Earthquake, or Fall of all the Churches," published in 1654, 
4to, left a sketch of his opinions and character, in which 

1 Old Anthony chronicles this battle of the kerchiefs with a sly humour 
very different from his usual solemn matter-of fact-style. 


his defence is undertaken with great zeal and no small 
ingenuity. One of his apologist's conclusions most of 
Erbury's readers will find no difficulty in assenting to, " the 
world is not ripe for such discoveries as our author held 
forth." The verses which are appended to this sketch, 
characterizing Erbury — 

" As him 
Who did the saintship sever 
From the opinion ; this fails, that shall never, 
Chymist of Truth and Gospel ;" — 

are, also, evidently Webster's, and their quality is not such 
as to make us unreasonably impatient for any further mani- 
festations of his poetical skill. In the year 1654 he pub- 
lished another tract of singular interest and curiosity, in 
which he attacks the Universities and the received system 
of education there, always with vigour and various learning, 
and frequently with success. It is entitled " Academiarum 
Examen, or the Examination of Academies; wherein is 
discussed and examined the matter, method, and customes 
of academick and scholastic learning, and the insufficiency 
thereof discovered and laid open ; as also some expedients 
proposed for the reforming of schools, and the perfecting 
and promoting of all kind of science ; offered to the judg- 
ment of all those that love the proficiencie of arts and 
sciences and the advancement of learning. By Jo. Webster. 
In moribus et institutis academiarum, collegiorum et 
similium conventium quo ad doctorum hominum sedes et 
operas mutuas destinata sunt, omnia progressui scientiarum 


in ulterius adversa inveniri. Franc. Bacon de Verulamio 
lib. de cogitat. et vis. pag. mihi. 14. London : Printed 
for Giles Calvert, and are to be sold at the sign of the 
Black Spread-Eagle, at the west end of Paul's. 1654." 4to. 
In this tract, which, like some other attacks upon the seats 
of learning, displays more power in objection than in 
substitution, in pulling down than in building up again, 
he shews the same fondness for the philosophers of the 
Hermetic school, for Paracelsus, Dee, Fludd and Van 
Helmont, and the same adhesion to planetary sigils, 
astrology, and the doctrine of sympathies and primaeval 
signatures, which is perceptible in the deliberate perform- 
ance of his old age. Of himself he observes : " I owe little 
to the advantages of those things called the goods of fortune, 
but most (next under the goodness of God) to industry : 
however, I am a free born Englishman, a citizen of the 
world and a seeker of knowledge, and am willing to teach 
what I know, and learn what I know not." No one can 
read the Academiarwn Examen without feeling that it is 
the production of a vigorous and powerful mind, which had 
" tasted," and that not scantily, of the " sweet fruit of far 
fetched and dear bought science." Yet it still remains a lite- 
rary problem rather difficult of solution, how a performance 
so clear, well digested, and rational, could proceed, and that 
contemporaneously, from the same author as the cloudy and 
fanatical "Judgment Set and Books Opened." On behalf of 
the Universities, answerers started up in the persons of Ward 
and Wilkins, both afterwards bishops, and the part taken by 
the first of them in the controversy was considered of sufficient 


importance to form matter of commemoration in his monu- 
mental inscription. Two opponents so famous, might 
almost seem to threaten extinction to one, of whom it could 
only be said, that he had been an obscure country school- 
master, and whose acquirements, whatever they were, were 
mainly the result of his own unassisted study. In the joint 
answer, the title of which is " Vindicise Academiarum, 
containing some briefe animadversions upon Mr. Webster's 
book entitled the 'Examination of Academies,' together 
with an appendix concerning what Mr Hobbes and Mr. Dell 
have published in this argument, Oxford, 1654," 4to., there 
is no want of bitterness nor of controversial skill, but 
though, particularly in the limited arena of the prescribed 
course of academical study, the knowledge displayed in it 
is more exact, there is neither visible in it the same power 
of mind, nor the same breadth of views, nor even the same 
variety of learning, as is conspicuous in the original tract. 
This, with the two fanatical pieces which Webster published 
contemporaneously with it, were entirely unknown to his 
biographer, Dr. Whitaker, who has ceded him a place 
amongst the distinguished natives and residents of the 
parish of Whalley, in the full confidence "that there is no 
puritanical taint in his writings, and that his taste had 
evidently been formed upon better models 1 " Had these 

1 What would Dr. Whitaker have thought of the following explosion, in 
which Webster sounds the tocsin with a vehemence and vigour which no 
Macbriar or Kettledrumle of the period could have surpassed. The extract 
is from his Judgment Set and Books Opened : — 

"All those that claim an Ordination by Man, or from Man, that speak 


early theological and literary delinquencies of the physician 
of Clitheroe been communicated to his historian, it may be 
questioned whether the portals of his provincial temple of 
fame would have opened to receive so heinous a transgressor. 
But Dr. Whitaker's deduction would have been perhaps 
perfectly warrantable, had Webster left no remains but his 
History of Metals, and Displaying of Witchcraft — so little 
do an author's latest works afford a clue to the character 
of his earliest. From 1654 to 1671, when he published 
his History of Metals, little is known of Webster's course of 
life. He appears to have retired into the country and 
devoted himself to medical practice and study, and to have 
taken up his residence in or near Clitheroe. He complains, 

from the Spirit of the World, from Wit, Learning and Humane Reason, who 
Preach for Hire, and make Merchandize of the Souls of Men; I witness 
they are all Baal's Priests and Idol-Shepherds, who destroy the Sheep, and 
are Theives and Robbers, who came not in by the Door of the Sheep-fold, 
but climbed up another way, and are the Magicians, Sorcerers, Inchanters, 
Soothsayers, Necromancers, and Consulters with Familiar Spirits, which the 
Lord will cut off out of the Land, so that his People shall have no more 
Soothsayers ; and as Jannes and Jambres resisted Moses, so do these resist 
the Truth ; Men of corrupt Minds, reprobate concerning the Faith ; but they 
shall proceed no farther, for their Folly shall be manifest to all Men, as theirs 
also was. Woe unto them, for they have gone in the way of Cain, and ran 
greedily after the Errors of Balaam, for Reward, and Perished in the Gain- 
saying of Core. These are Spots in your Feasts of Charity, when they 
Feast with you, feeding themselves without fear : Clouds they are without 
Water, carried of Winds; Trees, whose Fruit withered, without Fruit, 
twice dead, plucked up by the Roots : Raging Waves of the Sea, foaming 
out their own Shame, wandring Stars, to whom is reserved the blackness of 
Darkness for ever." 


that in the year 1658 all his^ books and papers were taken 
from him, an abstraction which, so far as his manuscripts 
are concerned, posterity is not called upon to lament, if 
they all resembled his Judgmeiit Set and Books Opened. 
But his capacious and acute understanding was gradually 
unfolding new resources, supplying the defects, and over- 
coming the disadvantages of his imperfect education and 
desultory and irregular studies, while his matured and enligh- 
tened judgment had abandoned and discarded the fanatical 
pravities and erroneous tenets, which his ardent enthusiasm 
had too hastily imbibed. When he again became a candi- 
date for the honours of authorship, it was evident that he 
knew well how to apply those quarries of learning into 
which, during his long recess, he had been digging so 
indefatigably, to furnish materials for solid and durable 
structures, rising in honourable and gratifying contrast to 
the fabrics which had preceded them. In 1671 came forth 
his " Metallographia, or History of Metals," 1 in which all 

1 "Metallographia : or, An History of Metals. Wherein is declared the 
signs of Ores and Minerals both before and after digging, the causes and 
manner of their generations, their kinds, sorts and differences; with the 
description of sundry new Metals or Semi-Metals, and many other things 
pertaining to Mineral knowledge. As also, the handling and shewing of their 
Vegetability, and the discussion of the most difficult Questions belonging to 
Mystical Chymistry, as of the Philosophers Gold, their Mercury, the Liquor 
Alkahest, Aurum potabile, and such like. Gathered forth of the most approved 
Authors that have written in Greek, Latine, or High Dutch; With some 
Observations and Discoveries of the Author himself By John Webster, 
Practitioner in Physick and Ghirurgery. Qui principia naturalia in seipso 
ignoraverit, hie jam multum remotus est ab arte nostra, quoniam non habet 


that recondite learning and extensive observation could 
bring together, on a subject which experiment had 
scarcely yet placed upon a rational basis, is collected. 
He styles himself on the Title page, " Practitioner in 
Physic and Chirurgery." In 1677, he published his great 
work. Its Title is "The Displaying of supposed Witch- 
craft. Wherein is affirmed that there are many sorts of 
Deceivers and Impostors. And Divers persons under a 
passive Delusion of Melancholy and Fancy. But that there 
is a Corporeal League made betwixt the Devil and the 
Witch, Or that he sucks on the Witches Body, has Carnal 
Copulation, or that Witches are turned into Cats, Dogs, 
raise Tempests, or the like, is utterly denied and disproved. 
Wherein also is handled, the Existence of Angels and 
Spirits, the truth of Apparitions, the Nature of Astral and 
Sydereal Spirits, the force of Charms and Philters; with 
other abstruse matters. By John Webster, Practitioner in 
Physic. Falsae etenim opiniones Hominum prseoccupantes, 
non solum surdos, sed et csecos faciunt, ita ut videre ne- 
queant, quae aliis perspicua apparent. Galen, lib. 8. de 
Comp. Med. London, Printed by J. M. and are to be sold 
by the Booksellers in London. 1677," (fol.) In this 
memorable book he exhausts the subject, as far as it is 

radicem veram supra quam intentionem suamfundet. Geber. Sum. perfect. 
I. c. i.p. 21. 

Sed non ante datur telluris operta snbire, 

Auricomos quam guts discerpserit arbore foetus. 

Virg. JEneid. 1. 6. 

London, Printed by A. G.for Walter Kettilby at the Bishops-Head in Duck- 
lane, 1671, 4to. 


possible to do so, by powerful ridicule, cogent arguments, 
and the most various and well applied learning, leaving to 
Hutchinson, and others who have since followed in his 
track, little further necessary than to reproduce his facts 
and reasonings in a more popular, it can scarcely be said, 
in a more effective, form. 1 Those who love literary paral- 
lels may compare Webster, as he appears in this his last 

1 Dr. Whitaker's assertion, that Webster was " neglected alike by the 
wise and unwise," seems to be a mere gratis dictum. The age of folios 
was rapidly passing away ; but few folios of the period appear to have been 
more generally read, if we are to judge at least from its being frequently 
mentioned and quoted, than Webster's Displaying of Supposed Witchcraft. 
The same able writer's "Doubt whether Sir Matthew Hale ever read 
Webster's Discovery of Supposed Witchcraft" might easily have been satis- 
fied by a reference to any common life of that great judge, which would 
have shown the historian of Whalley that Hale died before the book was 
published. Nor is Dr. Whitaker correct in stating that all tradition of 
Webster is now lost in the neighbourhood where he resided. The fol- 
lowing anecdote, which would have delighted him, I had from an old 
inhabitant of Burnley, to whom it had been handed down by his grand- 
father : « — In the days of Webster's fanaticism, during the usurpation, he is 
stated, in the zealous crusade then so common against superstitious relics, to 
have headed a party by whom the three venerable crosses, now set up in 
the churchyard of Whalley, commonly called the Crosses of Paulinus, and sup- 
posed to be coeval with the first preaching of Christianity in the North of 
England, were removed and taken away from their site and appropriated as 
a boundary fence for some adjoining fields. After the Eestoration, and 
when his religious views had become sobered and settled, he is said, in an 
eager desire to atone for the desecration of which he had been guilty, to 
have purchased the crosses from the person who was then in possession of 
them, and to have been at the cost of re-erecting them on their present 
site, from which no sacrilegious hand will, I trust, ever again remove them. 
It is further said, that Webster's favourite and regular walk, in the latter 


and most characteristic performance, with two famous 
medical contemporaries, Sir Thomas Browne, and Thomas 
Bartholinus the Dane, whom he strongly resembled in the 
character of his mind, in the complexion and variety of 
his studies, in grave simplicity, in exactness of observation, 
in general philosophical incredulity with some startling 
reserves, in elaborate and massive ratiocination, and in the 
enthusiasm, subdued but not extinguished, which gives zest 
to his speculations and poignancy and colouring to his style. 
He who seeks to measure great men in their strength and 
in their weakness, and what operation of literary analysis is 
more instructive or delightful, will find ample employment 

part of his life, till his infirmities rendered him unable to take exercise 
of any kind, was to the remains of Whalley Abbey ; and that a path along 
the banks of the stream which glides by those most picturesque and pleasing 
ruins, was long called " Webster's Walk." If this tradition be founded in 
fact, and I give it as I received it, John Webster, of Clitheroe, if not 
identical, as Mr. Collier has contended, with the dramatic poet of that 
name, must have felt something assimilated in spirit to the fine inspiration 
of those noble lines of the latter : — 

" I do love these ancient ruins. 
We never tread upon them but we set 
Our foot upon some reverend history ; 
And, questionless, here in this open court, 
Which now lies naked to the injuries 
Of stormy weather, some men lie interred that 
Lov'd the Church so well and gave so largely to't, 
They thought it should have canopied their bones 
Till doomsday : but all things have their end. 
Churches and cities, which have diseases like to men, 
Must have like death that we have/' 


for collation and comparison in this extraordinary book, in 
which, keen as is the penetration displayed on almost every 
subject of imposition and delusion, he appears still to cling, 
with the obstinacy of a veteran, to some of the darling 
Dalilahs of his youth, " to the admirable and soul-ravishing 
knowledge of the three great Hypostatical principles of 
nature, . salt, sulphur, and mercury," and, proh pudor ! to 
alchemy and astrology — and those seraphic doctors and 
professors, Crollius, Libavius, and Van Helmont. He closed 
his literary performances with this noble fabric of logic and 
learning, not the less striking, and scarcely less useful, 
because it is chequered by some of the mosaic work of 
human imperfection, — a performance which may be said to 
have grown up under the umbrage of Pendle, and which 
he might have bequeathed to its future Demdikes and 
Chattox's as an amulet of irresistible power. 1 

1 Webster s death took place on the 18th June, 1682. He left an 
extensive library, composed principally of chemical, hermetical, and phi- 
losophical works, of which the MSS. catalogue is now in the possession 
of my friend, the Eev. T. Corser. I have two books which appear to 
have at one time formed part of his collection, from having his favourite 
signature, Johannes Hyphantes, in his autograph, on the title pages. Before 
I conclude with Webster, I ought perhaps to observe, that in the valuable 
edition of the works of Webster, the dramatic poet, published by the Rev. 
A. Dyce, that most accurate and judicious editor has proved indisputably, by 
an elaborate argument, that the John Webster, the writer of the Examen 
Academiarum, and John Webster, the author of the Displaying of Sup- 
posed Witchcraft, were one and the same person, who was not identical with 
the dramatic writer of the same name. Mr. Dyce does not, however, appear 
to have been aware, that the identity of the author of the Examen Acade- 
miarum and the writer on witchcraft is distinctly stated by Dr. Henry More, 




But it is necessary to proceed from the authors on witch- 
craft to that extraordinary case which forms the subject of 

in his Prcefatio Generalissimo, to the Latin edition of his works, whose 
testimony heing that of a contemporary, who was, like Wehster, " a Cam- 
bridge scholar," may perhaps be considered sufficient, without resorting to 
internal and circumstantial evidence. The inscription on Webster's monu- 
ment in the chapel of St. Mary Magdalen, at Clitheroe, is too characteristic 
and curious to be omitted. I give it entire : — 

" Qui hancfiguram intelligunt 
Me etiam intellexisse, intelligent. 

Hicjacet ignotus mundo, mersusque tumultu 
Invidice, semper mens tamen cequafuit, 
Multa tulit veterum ut sciret secreta sophorum 
Ac tandem vires noverit ignis aquce. 

Johannes Hyphantes she Webster, 
In villa Spinosa supermontana, in 


the present republication, and which first gave to Pendle its 
title to be considered as the Hartz Forest of England. 

The Forest of Pendle is a portion of the greater one of 
Blackburnshire, and is so called from the celebrated moun- 
tain of that name, over the declivity of which it extends and 
stretches in a long but interrupted descent of five miles, to 
the water of Pendle, a barren and dreary tract. Dr. Whi- 
taker observes of this and the neighbouring forests, and the 
remark even yet holds good, " that they still bear the marks 
of original barrenness, and recent cultivation ; that they are 
still distinguished from the ancient freehold tracts around 
them, by want of old houses, old woods, high fences ; (for 
these were forbidden by the forest laws ;) by peculiarities of 
dialect and manners in their inhabitants; and lastly, by a 
general air of poverty which all the opulence of manu- 
factures cannot remove." He considers that "at an un- 
certain period during the occupancy of the Lacies, the first 
principle of population " (in these forests) commenced ; it 
was found that these wilds, bleak and barren as they were, 
might be occupied to some advantage in breeding young and 
depasturing lean " cattle, which were afterwards fattened in 
the lower domains. Vaccaries, or great upland pastures, 
were laid out for this purpose ; booths or mansions erected 

Parochia silcce cuculatce, in agro 

Uboracensi, nalus 1610 Feb. 3, 

Ergastulum animce deposuit 1682, Junii 18, 

Annoq. cetatis suce 72 cur rente. 
Sicq. peroravit moriens mundo huic valedicens, 
Aurea pax vivis, requies ceterna sepultis." 


upon them for the residence of herdsmen ; and at the same 
time that herds of deer were permitted to range at large as 
heretofore, lawnds, by which are meant parks within a forest, 
were inclosed, in order to chase them with greater facility, 
or, by confinement, to produce fatter venison. Of these 
lawnds Pendle had new and old lawnd, with the contiguous 
park of Ightenhill." 

In the early part of the seventeenth century, the inha- 
bitants of this district must have been, with few exceptions, 
a wretchedly poor and uncultivated race, having little com- 
munication with the occupants of the more fertile regions 
around them, and in whose minds superstition, even yet 
unextinguished, must have had absolute and uncontrollable 
domination. Under the disenchanting influence of steam, 
manufactures, and projected rail-roads, still much of the old 
character of its population remains. Hodie manent vestigia 
ruris. The " parting genius " of superstition still clings to 
the hoary hill tops and rugged slopes and mossy water sides, 
along which the old forest stretched its length, and the voices 
of ancestral tradition are still heard to speak from the depth of 
its quiet hollows, and along the course of its gurgling streams. 
He who visits Pendle 1 will yet find that charms are generally 

1 It was my good fortune to visit this wizard-haunted spot within the 
last few weeks, in company with the able and zealous Archdeacon* within 
whose ecclesiastical cure it is comprized, and to whose singularly accurate 
knowledge of this district, and courteous communication of much valuable 
information regarding it, I hold myself greatly indebted. Following, with 

* The Venerable the Archdeacon of Manchester, the Rev. John Rushton, who 
is also the Incumbent of New Church, in Pendle. 


resorted to amongst the lower classes ; that there are hares 
which, in their persuasion, never can be caught, and which 
survive only to baffle and confound the huntsman; that 
each small hamlet has its peculiar and gifted personage, 
whom it is dangerous to oifend; that the wise man and 
wise woman (the white witches of our ancestors) still continue 
their investigations of truth, undisturbed by the rural police 
or the progress of the schoolmaster ; that each locality has 
its haunted house ; that apparitions still walk their ghostly 
rounds — and little would his reputation for piety avail that 
clergyman in the eyes of his parishioners who should refuse 
to lay those " extravagant and erring spirits," when requested, 
by those due liturgic ceremonies which the orthodoxy of 
tradition requires. 

In the early part of the reign of James the first, and at 
the period when his execrable statute against witchcraft might 
have been sharpening its appetite by a temporary fast for the 
full meal of blood by which it was eventually glutted, — for 
as yet it could count no recorded victims, — two wretched old 

unequal steps, such a guide, accompanied, likewise, by an excellent Canon 
of the Churcht with all the "armamentaria coeli" at command against 
the powers of darkness, and a lay auxiliary, J whose friendly converse would 
make the roughest journey appear smooth, I need scarcely say, I passed 

# ** The forest wyde, 

Whose hideous horror and sad trembling sownd 

Full griesly seem'd," 
unscathed by the old lords of the soil, and needed not Mengus's Fuga, 
Fustis et Flagellum Daemonum, as a triple coat of mail. 

t The Rev. Canon Parkinson. $ J. B. Wanklyn, Esq. 


women with their families resided in the Forest of Pendle. 
Their names were Elizabeth Southernes and Ann Whittle, 
better known, perhaps, in the chronicles of witchcraft, by the 
appellations of Old Demdike and Old Chattox. 1 Both had 
attained, or had reached the verge of the advanced age of 
eighty, were evidently in a state of extreme poverty, subsisting 
with their families by occasional employment, by mendi- 
cancy, but principally, perhaps, by the assumption of that 
unlawful power, which commerce with spirits of evil was 
supposed to procure, and of which their sex, life, appear- 
ance, and peculiarities, might seem to the prejudiced neigh- 
bourhood in the Forest to render them not unsuitable 
depositaries. In both, perhaps, some vindictive wish, which 
appeared to have been gratified nearly as soon as uttered, or 
some one of those curious coincidences which no individual's 
life is without, led to an impression which time, habit, and 
general recognition would gradually deepen into full con- 
viction, that each really possessed the powers which witch- 
craft was believed to confer. Whether it be with witches as 
it is said to be with a much maligned branch of a certain 
profession, that it needs two of its members in a district to 
make its exercise profitable, it is not for me to say ; but it is 
seldom found that competition is accompanied by any very 
amicable feeling in the competitors, or by a disposition to 
underrate the value of the merchandize which each has to 
offer for sale. Accordingly, great was the rivalry, constant 

1 The Archdeacon of Manchester suggests that this is merely a corrup- 
tion of Chad wick or Chad wicks, and not, as explained in the Note, p. 19, 
from her chattering as she went along. 


the feuds, and unintermitting the respective criminations of 
the Erictho and Canidia of Pendle, 1 who had opened shops 
for the vending of similar contraband commodities, and 
were called upon to decry each other's stock, as well as 
to magnify their own. Each " gave her little senate laws," 
and had her own party (or tail, according to modern 
phraseology) in the Forest. Some looked up to and 
patronized one, and some the other. If old Demdike could 
boast that she had Tibb as a familiar, old Chattox was 
not without her Fancy. If the former had skill in waxen 
images, the latter could dig up the scalps of the dead, and 
make their teeth serviceable to her unhallowed purposes. 
In the anxiety which each felt to outvie the other, and 
to secure the greater share of the general custom of a 
not very extended or very lucrative market, each would wish 
to be represented as more death-dealing, destructive, and 
powerful than her neighbour ; and she who could number up 
the most goodly assortment of damage done to man and 
beast, whether real or not was quite immaterial, as long as 
the draught was spiced and flavoured to suit the general 
taste, stood the best chance of obtaining a monopoly. It is 
a curious fact, that the son-in-law of one of these two indivi- 
duals, and whose wife was herself executed as a witch, paid 
to the other a yearly rent, 2 on an express covenant that she 

1 These bickerings were no doubt exasperated by the robbery committed 
upon old Demdike and Alizon Device, which is detailed in the examinations, 
some of the opima spolia abstracted on which occasion she detected on 
the person of old Chattox's daughter. 

2 Of an aghendole of meal. Since writing the Note, p. 23 , I am in- 


should exempt him from her charms and witchcrafts. Where 
the possession of a commission from the powers of darkness 
was thus eagerly and ostentatiously paraded, every death, the 
cause of which was not perfectly obvious, whether it ended 
in a sudden termination or a slow and gradual decline, would 
be placed to the general account of one of the two (to use 
Master Potts's description,) "agents for the devil in those 
parts," as the party responsible for these unclaimed dividends 
of mortality. Did a cow go mad, or was a horse unaccountably 
afflicted with the staggers, the same solution was always at 
hand to clear negligence and save the trouble of inquiry; 
and so far from modestly disclaiming these atrocities, the 
only struggle on the parts of Mothers Demdike and Chattox 
would be which should first appropriate them. And in all 
this it must not be forgotten that their own credulity was at 
least as great as the credulity of their neighbours, and that 
each had the power in question was so much an admitted 
point, that she had long ceased, in all probability, to enter- 
tain any doubts on the subject. With this general conviction 
on one hand, and a sincere persuasion on the other, it would 
be surprising if, in the course of a few years, the scandalous 
chronicle of Pendle had not accumulated a corpus delicti 

debted to Miss Clegg, of Hallfoot, near Clitheroe, for information as to the 
exact quantity contained in an aghendole, which is eight pounds. This 
measure, she informs me, is still in use in Little Harwood, in the district 
of Pendle. The Archdeacon of Manchester considers that an aghen- 
dole, or more properly, as generally pronounced, a nackendole, is a knead- 
ing-dole, the quantity of meal, &c. usually taken for kneading at one time. 
There can be no doubt that this is the correct derivation. 


against them, which only required that " one of his Majesties 
Justices in these parts, a very religious honest gentleman, 
painful in the service of his country," should work the ma- 
terials into shape, and make " the gruel thick and slab." 

Such a man was soon found in the representative of the 
old family of the Nowels of Read, who, desirous of signalizing 
himself as an active and stirring justice, took up the case of 
these self-accusing culprits, for both made confessions when 
examined before him, with a vigour worthy of a better 
cause. On the 2nd April, 1612, he committed old Demdike, 
old Chattox, Alizon Device, and Anne Redfern to Lan- 
caster, to take their trial at the next assizes for various 
murders and witchcrafts. " Here," says the faithful chron- 
icler, Master Potts, "they had not stayed a weeke, when 
their children and friendes being abroad at libertie, 
laboured a speciall meeting at Malking Tower 1 in the 

1 Baines confounds Malking-Tower with Hoar-stones, a place rendered 
famous by the second case of pretended witchcraft in 1633, but at some 
distance from the first-named spot, the residence of Mother Demdike, 
which lies in the township of Barrowford. The witch's mansion — 
u Where that same wicked wight 

Her dwelling had — 

Dark, doleful, dreary, like a greedy grave 

That still for carrion carcases doth crave, 

On top whereof ay dwelt the ghastly owle, 

Shrieking his baleful note, which ever drave 

Far from that haunt all other cheerful fowl, 

And all about it wandering ghosts did wail and howle" — 
is now, alas ! no more. It stood in a field a little elevated, on a brow 
above the building at present called Malking-Tower. The site of the 
house or cottage is still distinctly traceable, and fragments of the plaster 



Forrest of Pendle, vpon Good-fryday, within a weeke after 
they were committed, of all the most dangerous, wicked, 
and damnable witches in the county farre and neere. 
Vpon Good-fryday they met, according to solemne appoynt- 
ment, solemnized this great festiuall day according to their 
former order, with great cheare, merry company, and much 
conference. In the end, in this great assemblie it was de- 
creed that M. Co veil, [he was the gaoler of Lancaster Castle,] 
by reason of his Office, shall be slaine before the next 
Assises, the Castle at Lancaster to be blown up," &c, &c. 
This witches' convention, so historically famous, we un- 
questionably owe to the " painful justice" whose scent after 
witches and plots entitled him to a promotion which he did 
not obtain. An overt act so alarming and so indisputable, 
at once threw the country, far and near, into the greatest 
ferment — fur Us surrexit Etruria justis — while it supplied 
an admirable locus in quo for tracing those whose re- 
tiring habits had prevented their propensities to witch- 
craft from being generally known to their intimate friends 

are yet to be found imbedded in the boundary wall of the field. The old 
road to Gisburne ran almost close to it. It commanded a most extensive 
prospect in front, in the direction of Alkincoates, Colne, and the York- 
shire moors ; while in another direction the vast range of Pendle, nearly 
intercepted, gloomed in sullen majesty. At the period when Mother 
Demdike was in being, Malking-Tower would be at some distance from 
any other habitation ; its occupier, as the vulgar would opine — 
" So choosing solitarie to abide 
Far from all neighbours, that her devilish deedes 
And hellish arts from people she might hide, 
And hurt far off unknown whomever she envide." 


and connexions. The witness by whose evidence this 
legend was principally supported, was Jennet Device, a 
child about nine years old, and grand-daughter of old 
Demdike. A more dangerous tool in the hands of an 
unscrupulous evidence-compeller, being at once intelligent, 
cunning and pliant, than the child proved herself, it would 
not have been easy to have discovered. A foundation 
being now laid capable of embracing any body of confeder- 
ates, the indefatigable justice proceeded in his inquiries, 
and in the end, Elizabeth Device the daughter of old Dem- 
dike, James Device her son, Alice Nutter, Katherine Hewitt, 
John Bulcock, Jane Bulcock, with some others, were com- 
mitted for trial at Lancaster. The very curious report of 
that trial is contained in the work now republished, which 
was compiled under the superintendence of the judges who 
presided, by Master Thomas Potts, clerk in court, and 
present at the trial. His report, notwithstanding its pro- 
lixity and its many repetitions, it has been thought advisable 
to publish entire, and the reprint which follows is as near 
a fac-simile as possible of the original tract. 

It is rather strange that Dr. Whitaker, to whom local 
superstitions were always matters of the strongest interest, 
and welcome as manna to the sojourners in the wilderness, 1 

1 In a scarce little book, " The Triumph of Sovereign Grace, or a Brand 
plucked out of the Fire, by David Crosly, Minister, Manchester," 1743, 
12mo., which I owe to the kindness of the very able historian of Cheshire, 
George Ormerod, Esq., Dr. Whitaker, to whom the volume formerly 
belonged, has been at the pains of chronicling the superstitions connected 
with a family, ranking amongst the more opulent yeomen of Cliviger, of 


should have been ignorant, not merely of Master Potts's 
discovery, but even of the fact of this trial of the witches in 
1612. It is equally singular that Sir Walter Scott should have 
forgotten, when writing his letters on Demonology and Witch- 
craft, that he had republished this tract, somewhat inaccur- 
ately, but with rather a long introduction and notes, in the 
third volume of his edition of the Somers Tracts, which 
appeared in 1810. He mentions Potts's Discoverie, in the 
amusing but very inaccurate and imperfect historical sketch 
referred to, 1 as a curious and rare book, which he had then 
for the first time obtained a sight of. What could have 
been his meaning in referring his readers, for an account 
of Mother Demdike and a description of Malking Tower, 
to "Mr. Roby's Antiquities of Lancaster," that apocryphal 
historian having given no such account or description, 
and having published no such work, it is rather difficult 
to conjecture. 

With all his habitual tautology and grave absurdity, 

the name of Briercliffe, on the execution of one of whom for murder the 
tract was published. The BrierclifFe's, from the curious anecdotes which 
the Doctor gives with great unction, appear to have been one of those 
gloomy and fated races, dogged by some unassuageable Nemesis, in which 
crime and horror are transmitted from generation to generation with as 
much certainty as the family features and name. 

1 We yet want a full, elaborate, and satisfactory history of witchcraft. 
Hutchinson's is the only account we have which enters at all at length into 
the detail of the various cases ; but his materials were generally collected 
from common sources, and he confines himself principally to English cases. 
The European history of witchcraft embraces so wide a field, and requires 
for its just completion a research so various, that there is little probability, 
I fear, of this desideratum being speedily supplied. 


Master Potts is, nevertheless, a faithful and accurate chro- 
nicler, and we owe his memory somewhat for furnishing us 
with so elaborate a report of what took place on this trial, 
and giving us, " in their own country terms," the examina- 
tions of the witnesses, which contain much which throws 
light on the manners and language of the times, and nearly 
all that is necessary to enable us to form a judgment on the 
proceedings. It will be observed that he follows with great — \ 
exactness the course pursued in court, in opening the case 
and recapitulating the evidence separately against each pri- 
soner, so as most graphically to place before us the whole 
scene as it occurred. The part in which he is felt to be 
most deficient, is in the want of some further account of 
the prisoners convicted, from the trial up to the time of 
their execution. To Master Potts, a man of legal forms 
and ceremonies, the entire interest in the case seems to 
have come in and gone out with the judge's trumpets. 

As most of the points in the trial which appeared to 
require observation, have been adverted to in the notes 
which follow the reprint, it is not considered necessary to 
enter into any analysis or review of the evidence adduced 
at the trial, which presents such a miserable mockery of 
justice. Mother Demdike, it will be seen, died in prison 
before the trial came on. Of the Pendle witches four, 
namely Old Chattox, Elizabeth Device, James Device, and 
Alizon Device, had all made confessions, and had little 
chance, therefore, of escaping condemnation. They were 
all found guilty; and with them were convicted, Anne 
Redfern, Alice Nutter, Katherine Hewitt, John Bulcock, 


and Jane Bulcock, who were all of Pendle or its neigh- 
bourhood, and who maintained their innocence and refused 
to make any confession. They were executed, along with 
the first-mentioned four and Isabel Robey, who was of 
Windle, in the parish of Prescot, and had been found 
guilty of similar practises, the day after the trial, viz. on 
the 18th of August, 1612, "at the common place of execu- 
tion near to Lancaster." 

The main interest in reviewing this miserable band of 
victims will be felt to centre in Alice Nutter. 1 Wealthy, 
well conducted, well connected, and placed probably on an 
equality with most of the neighbouring families and the 
magistrate before whom she was brought, and by whom 
she was committed, she deserves to be distinguished from 

1 The explorer of Pendle will find the mansion of Alice Nutter, Rough 
Lee, still standing. It is impossible to look at it, recollecting the circum- 
stances of her case, without being strongly interested. It is a very sub- 
stantial, and rather a fine specimen of the houses of the inferior gentry in 
the time of James the first, and is now divided into cottages. On one of 
the side walls is an inscription, almost entirely obliterated, which contained 
the date of the building and the initials of the name of its first owner. At 
a little distance from Rough Lee, pursuing the course of the stream, he will 
find the foundations of an ancient mill, and the millstones still unremoved, 
though the building itself has been pulled down long ago. This was, 
doubtless, the mill of Richard Baldwin, the miller, who, as stated in Old 
Demdike's confession, ejected her and Alizon Device her daughter, from 
his land so contumeliously ; immediately after which her " Spirit or divell 
called Tibb appeared, and sayd Revenge thee of him." Greenhead, the 
residence of Robert Nutter, one of the reputed victims of the prisoners 
tried on this occasion, is at some distance from Rough Lee, and is yet in 
good preservation, and occupied as a farmhouse. 


the companions with whom she suffered, and to attract an 
attention which has never yet been directed towards her. 1 
That Jennet Device, on whose evidence she was convicted, 
was instructed to accuse her by her own nearest relatives, 
to whom "superfluous lagged the veteran on the stage," 
and that the magistrate, Roger Nowell, entered actively as 
a confederate into the conspiracy from a grudge entertained 
against her on account of a long disputed boundary, are 
allegations which tradition has preserved, but the truth or 
falsehood of which, at this distance of time, it is scarcely 
possible satisfactorily to examine. With such a witness, 

1 The instances are very few in England in which the statute of James 
the first was brought to bear against any but the lowest classes of the 
people. Indeed, there are not many attempts reported to attack the rich 
and powerful with weapons derived from its provisions. One of such 
attempts, which did not, like that against Alice Nutter, prove successful, is 
narrated in a curious and scarce pamphlet, which I have now before me, 
with this title — " Wonderful News from the North, or a true Relation of 
the sad and grievous Torments inflicted upon the Bodies of three children 
of Mr. George Muschamp, late of the County of Northumberland, by 
Witchcraft, and how miraculously it pleased God to strengthen them and to 
deliver them ; as also the prosecution of the say'd Witches, as by Oaths 
and their own Confessions will appear, and by the Indictment found by the 
Jury against one of them at the Sessions of the Peace held at Alnwick, the 
24th day of April, 1650. London, printed by T. H., and are to be sold by 
Richard Harper at his Shop in Smithfield. 1650," 4to. This was evidently 
a diabolical plot, in which these children were made the puppets, and 
which was got up to accomplish the destruction of a person of condition, 
Mrs. Dorothy Swinnow, the wife of Colonel Swinnow, of Chatton, in Nor- 
thumberland, and from which she had great difficulty in escaping. 


however, as Jennet Device, and such an admirable engine 
as the meeting at Malking-Tower, the guests at which she 
could multiply ad libitum, doling out the plaat, as Titus 
Oates would call it, by such instalments, and in such frag- 
mentary portions, as would conduce to an easy digestion of 
the whole, the wonder seems not to be, that one unfortunate 
victim of a higher class should have perished in the meshes 
of artful and complicated villainy, but that its ramifications 
were not more extensive, and still more fatal and destruc- 
tive. From one so capable of taking a hint as the little 
precocious prodigy of wickedness, in whose examination, 
Potts tells us, " Mr. Nowell took such great paines" a very 
summary deliverance might be expected from troublesome 
neighbours, or still more troublesome relatives ; and if, by a 
leading question, she could only be induced to marshal 
them in their allotted places at the witches' imaginary 
banquet, there was little doubt of their taking their station 
at a place of meeting where the sad realities of life were 
only to be encountered, "the common place of execution 
near to Lancaster." 

The trial of the Samlesbury witches, Jennet Bierley, 
Ellen Bierley, and Jane Southworth, forms a curious 
episode in Potts's Discover ie. A Priest or Jesuit, of the 
name of Thomson, alias Southworth, had tutored the princi- 
pal evidence, Grace Sowerbuts, a girl of the age of fourteen, 
but who had not the same instinctive genius for perjury as 
Jennet Device, to accuse the three persons above mentioned 
of having bewitched her; "so that," as the indictment 


runs, " by means thereof her body wasted and consumed." 
" The chief object," says Sir Walter Scott, " in this impos- 
ture, was doubtless the advantage and promotion of the 
Catholic cause, as the patient would have been in due time 
exorcised and the fiend dispossessed, by the same priest who 
had taught her to counterfeit the fits. Revenge against 
the women, who had become proselytes to the Church of 
England, was probably an additional motive." But the 
imposture broke down, from the inability of the principal 
witness to support the scheme of deception. Unsuccessful, 
however, as it proved, the time was well chosen, the ground- 
work excellently laid, the evidence industriously got up, and 
it must ever deserve a prominent place in the history — a 
history, how delightful when it shall be written in the 
spirit of philosophy and with due application of research — 
of human fraud and imposture. 

We can only speculate, of course, on such an occasion, but 
perhaps no trial is recorded as having taken place, with the 
results of which every body, the parties convicted only ex- 
cepted, was, in all probability, better pleased or satisfied, 
than at this witch trial at Lancaster in 1612. The mob 
would be delighted with a pageant, always acceptable, in 
the execution of ten witches; and still more, that one of 
them was of a rank superior to their own; — the judge 
had no doubt, in his opinion, avoided each horn of the di- 
lemma — the abomination mentioned in Scripture — punish- 
ing the innocent or letting the guilty go free — by tracking 
guilt with well breathed sagacity, and unravelling imposture 



with unerring skill ; — a Jesuit had been unkennelled, a 
spectacle as gratifying to a serious Protestant in those 
days, as running down a fox to a thorough sportsman ; — 
a plot had been discovered which might have made Lancas- 
ter Castle " to topple on its warders" and " slope its head to 
its foundations," and Master Cowell, who had held so many 
inquests, to vanish without leaving anything in his own 
person whereon an inquest could be holden ; — a pestilent 
nest of incorrigible witches had been dug out and rooted up, 
and Pendle Hill placed under sanatory regulations; — and 
last, and not least, as affording matter of pride and exulta- 
tion to every loyal subject, a commentary had at last been 
collected for two texts, which had long called for some such 
support without finding it, King James's Demonology, and 
his statute against witchcraft. When the Discoverie of 
Master Potts, with its rich treasury of illustrative evidence, 
came to hand, would not the monarch be the happiest man 
in his dominions ! 

Twenty years after the publication of the tract now re- 
printed, Pendle Forest again became the scene of pretended 
witchcrafts ; and from various circumstances, the trial which 
took place then (in 1633) has acquired even greater notoriety 
than the one which preceded it, though no Master Potts 
could be found to transmit a report of the proceedings in 
the second case, a deficiency which is greatly to be lamented. 
The particulars are substantially comprised in the following 
examination, which is given from the copy in Whitaker's 
Whalley, p. 213, which, on comparison, is unquestionably 


more accurate than the other two versions, in Webster, 
p. 347, and Baines's Lancashire, vol. i. p. 604 r 1 — 

"The Examination of Edmund Robinson, 
" Son of Edm, Robinson, of Pendle forest, mason, 2 taken 

1 The copy in Baines is from the Harl. MSS., cod. 6854, fo. 26 b, and 
though inserted in his history as more correct than that in Whitaker's Whal- 
ley, is so disfigured hy errors, particularly in the names of persons and 
places, as to he utterly unintelligible. From what source Whitaker derived 
his transcript does not appear ; for the confession of Margaret Johnson he 
cites Dodsworth MSS. in Bodleian Lib., vol. 61, p. 47. 

3 " The informer was one Edmund Robinson (yet living at the writing 
hereof, and commonly known by the name of Ned of Roughs) whose 
Father was by trade a Waller, and but a poor Man, and they finding 
that they were believed and had incouragement by the adjoyning Magis- 
trates, and the persons being committed to prison or bound over to the next 
Assizes, the boy, his Father and some others besides did make a practice to 
go from Church to Church that the Boy might reveal and discover Witches, 
pretending that there was a great number at the pretended meeting whose 
faces he could know, and by that means they got a good living, that in a 
short space the Father bought a Cow or two, when he had none before. 
And it came to pass that this said Boy was brought into the Church of 
Kildwick a large parish Church, where I (being then Curate there) was 
preaching in the afternoon, and was set upon a stall (he being but about ten 
or eleven years old) to look about him, which moved some little disturbance 
in the Congregation for a while. And after prayers I inquiring what the 
matter was, the people told me that it was the Boy that discovered Witches, 
upon which I went to the house where he was to stay all night, where I 
found him, and two very unlikely persons that did conduct him, and manage 
the business ; I desired to have some discourse with the Boy in private, but 
that they utterly refused ; then in the presence of a great many people, I 
took the Boy near me, and said : Good Boy tell me truly, and in earnest, 
did thou see and hear such strange things of the meeting of Witches, as is 


at Padiham before Richard Shuttleworth 1 and John Starkie, 2 
Esqs. two of his majesty's justices of the peace, within the 
county of Lancaster, 10th of February, a.d. 1633. 

" Who informeth upon oath, (beeinge examined concern- 
inge the greate meetings of the witches) and saith, that 
upon All-saints day last past, hee, this informer, beeinge 
with one Henry Parker, a neare doore neighbor to him in 
Wheatley-lane? desyred the said Parker to give him leave to 
get some bulloes, 4 which hee did. In which tyme of get- 
tinge bulloes, hee sawe two greyhounds, viz. a black e and a 
browne one, came runninge over the next field towards him, 
he verily thinkinge the one of them to bee Mr. Nutters? and 

reported by many that thou dost relate, or did not some person teach thee 
to say such things of thy self? But the two men not giving the Boy leave 
to answer, did pluck him from me, and said he had been examined by two 
able Justices of the Peace, and they did never ask him such a question, to 
whom I replied, the persons accused had therefore the more wrong." — 
Webster's Displaying of Witchcraft, p. 276. 

1 This was Richard Shuttleworth of Gawthorp, Esq., who married the 
daughter and heiress of R. Fleetwood, Esq., of Barton, and died June 
1669, aged 82. 

2 John Starkie, Esq., of the family of Starkie of Huntroyd, the same 
probably who was sheriff of Lancashire 9 Charles I, and one of the seven 
demoniacs at Cleworth in the year 1595, on whose evidence Hartley was 
hanged for witchcraft. Having commenced so early, he must by this time 
have qualified himself, if he only improved the advantages of his Cleworth 
education, to take the chair and proceed as professor, in all matters 
appertaining to witchcraft. 

3 Wheatley-lane is still a place of note in Pendle. 

4 Wild plums. 

5 It would seem as if a case of witchcraft in Pendle, without a Nutter 
in some way connected with it, could not occur. 


the other to bee Mr. Robinsons, 1 the said Mr. Nutter and Mr. 
Robinson havinge then such like. And the said greyhounds 
came to him and fawned on him, they havinge about theire 
necks either of them a coller, and to either of which collers 
was tyed a stringe, which collers as this informer affirmeth 
did shine like gould, and hee thinkinge that some either of 
Mr. Nutter's or Mr. Robinson's family should have followed 
them : but seeinge noe body to followe them, he tooke the 
said greyhounds thinkinge to hunt with them, and presently a 
hare did rise very neare before him, at the sight whereof he 
cryed, loo, loo, but the dogges would not run. Whereupon 
beeinge very angry, he tooke them, and with the strings 
that were at theire collers tyed either of them to a little 
bush on the next hedge, and with a rod that hee had in his 
hand, hee bett them. And in stede of the blacke greyhound, 
one Dickonson wife stoode up (a neighb r .) whom this informer 
knoweth, and in steade of the browne greyhound a little boy 
whom this informer knoweth not. At which sight this in- 
former beeinge affraid indevoured to run away : but beeinge 
stayed by the woman, viz. by Dickonson 's wife, shee put her 
hand into her pocket, and pulled out a peace of silver much 
like to a faire shillinge, and offered to give him to hould his 

1 What Mr. Robinson is intended does not appear. It was a common 
name in Pendle. It is, however, a curious fact, that a family of this name, 
with the alias of Swyer, (see Potts, confession of Elizabeth Device,) is even 
now, or very recently was, to be met with in Pendle, of whom the John 
Robinson, alias Swyer, one of the supposed victims of Witchcraft, was 
probably an ancestor. There are few instances of an alias being similarly 
transmitted in families for upwards of two centuries. 


tongue, and not to tell, whiche hee refused, sayinge, nay 
thou art a witch; Whereupon shee put her hand into her 
pocket againe, and pulled out a stringe like unto a bridle 1 
that gingled, which shee put upon the litle boyes heade that 
stood up in the browne greyhounds steade ; whereupon the 
said boy stood up a white horse. Then immediately the 
said Dickonson wife tooke this informer before her upon the 
said horse, and carried him to a new house called Hoare- 
% stones, 2 beinge about a quarter of a mile off, whither, when 
they were comme, there were divers persons about the 
doore, and hee sawe divers others cominge rideinge upon 
horses of severall colours towards the said house, which 
tyed theire horses to a hedge neare to the sed house ; and 
which persons went into the sed house, to the number of 
threescore or thereabouts, as this informer thinketh, where 
they had a fyer and meate roastinge, and some other meate 
stirringe in the house, whereof a yonge woman whom hee 
this informer knoweth not, gave him flesh and breade upon 
a trencher, and drinke in a glasse, which, after the first 
taste, hee refused, and would have noe more, and said it was 
nought. And presently after, seeinge diverse of the com- 
pany goinge to a barn neare adioyneinge, 3 hee followed 

1 Mother Dickenson, as Sir Walter Scott remarks, brings to mind the 
magician Queen in the Arabian Tales. 

2 This house is still standing, and though it has undergone some 
modernizations, has every appearance of having been built about this 

3 The old barn, so famous as the scene of these exploits, is no longer 


after, and there he sawe sixe of them kneelinge, and pull- 
inge at sixe severall roapes which were fastened or tyed to 
ye toppe of the house ; at or with which pullinge came then 
in this informers sight flesh smoakeinge, butter in lumps, 
and milke as it were syleinge 1 from the said roapes, all 
which fell into basons whiche were placed under the saide 
roapes. And after that these sixe had done, there came 
other sixe which did likewise, and duringe all the tyme of 
theire so pullinge, they made such foule faces that feared 2 
this informer, soe as hee was glad to steale out and run 
home, whom, when they wanted, some of theire company 
came runninge after him neare to a place in a high way, 
called Boggard-hole, 3 where this informer met two horsemen, 
at the sight whereof the sed persons left folio winge him, and 
the foremost of which persons yt followed him, hee knoweth 
to bee one Loynd wife, which said wife, together with one 
Dickonson wife, and one Jenet Davies* he hath seene at 
severall tymes in a croft or close adioninge to his fathers 

extant. A more modern and very substantial one lias now been erected 
on its scite. 

1 Syleing, from the verb sile or syle, to strain, to pass through a strainer. 
See Jamieson, under " sile." 

2 Frightened. 

3 Boggard Hole lies in a hollow, near to Hoarstones, and is still known 
by that name. 

4 " It is the sport to see the engineer hoist with his own petar." Her 
old occupation as witness having got into other hands, Janet or Jennet 
Davies, or Device, for the person spoken of appears to be the same with 
the grand-daughter of Old Demdike, on whose evidence three members 
of her family were executed, has now to take her place amongst the wit- 
nessed against. 


house, whiche put him in a greate feare. And further, this 
informer saith, upon Thursday after New Yeares day last past, 
he sawe the sed Loynd wife sittinge upon a crosse peece of 
wood, beeinge within the chimney of his father's dwellinge 
house, and hee callinge to her, said, come downe thou 
Loynd wife, and immediately the sed Loynd wife went up 
out of his sight. And further, this informer saith, yt after 
hee was comme from ye company aforesed to his father's 
house, beeinge towards eveninge, his father bad him goe 
fetch home two kyne to seale, 1 and in the way, in a field 
called the Oilers, hee chanced to hap upon a boy, who began 
to quarrell with him, and they fought soe together till this 
informer had his eares made very bloody by fightinge, and 
lookinge downe, hee sawe the boy had a cloven foote, at 
which sight hee was affraid, and ran away from him to 
seeke the kyne. And in the way hee sawe a light like a 
lanthorne, towards which he made hast, supposinge it to bee 
carried by some of Mr. Robinson's people : But when hee 
came to the place, hee onley found a woman standinge on a 
bridge, whom, when hee sawe her, he knewe to bee Loynd 
wife, and knowinge her, he turned backe againe, and imme- 
diatly hee met with ye aforesed boy, from whom he offered 
to run, which boy gave him a blow on the back which 
caus'd him to cry. And hee farther saith, yt when hee was 
in the barne, he sawe three women take three pictures from 

1 Seale, from sele, s. a yoke for binding cattle in the stall. Sal (A. S.) 
denotes "a collar or bond." Somner. Sile (Isl.) seems to bear the very 
same sense with our sele, being exp. a ligament of leather by which cattle 
and other things are bound. Vide Jamieson, under " sele." 


off the beame, in the which pictures many thornes, or 
such like things stieked, and yt Loynd wife tooke one 
of the said pictures downe, but thother two women yt 
tooke thother two pictures downe hee knoweth not. 1 

1 Heywood and Broome, in their play, " The late Lancashire Witches," 
1634, 4to, follow the terms of this deposition very closely. It is very 
prohable that they had seen and conversed with the hoy, to whom, when 
taken up to London, there was a great resort of company. The Lancashire 
dialect, as given in this play, and by no means unfaithfully, was perhaps 
derived from conversations with some of the actors in this drama of real 
life, a drama quite as extraordinary as any that Heywood's imagination ever 
bodied forth from the world of fiction. 

" Enter Boy with a switch. 

Boy. Now I have gathered Bullies, and fild my bellie pretty well, i'le goe 
see some sport. There are gentlemen coursing in the medow hard by ; and 
'tis a game that I love better than going to Schoole ten to one. 

Enter an invisible spirit. J. Adson* with a brace of greyhounds. 
What have we here a brace of Greyhounds broke loose from their 
masters : it must needs be so, for they have both their Collers and slippes 
about their neckes. Now I looke better upon them, me thinks I should 
know them, and so I do : these are Mr. Eobinsons dogges, that dwels some 
two miles off, i'le take them up, and lead them home to their master ; it 
may be something in my way, for he is as liberall a gentleman, as any is in 
our countrie, Come Hector, come. Now if I c'ud but start a Hare by the 
way, kill her, and carry her home to my supper, I should thinke I had 
made a better afternoones worke of it than gathering of bullies. Come 
poore curres along with me. Exit. 

Sic in orig. 


And beeinge further asked, what persons were at ye 
meeteinge aforesed, hee nominated these persons hereafter 

" Enter Boy with the Greyhounds. 

A Hare, a Hare, halloe, halloe, the Divell take these curres, will they 
not stir, halloe, halloe, there, there, there, what are they growne so lither 
and so lazie ? Are Mr. Robinsons dogges turn'd tykes with a wanion ? the 
Hare is yet in sight, halloe, halloe, mary hang you for a couple of mungrils 
(if you were worth hanging,) and have you serv'd me thus ? nay then ile 
serve you with the like sauce, you shall to the next bush, there will I tie 
you, and use you like a couple of curs as you are, and though not lash you, 
yet lash you whilest my switch will hold, nay since you have left your 
speed, ile see if I can put spirit into you, and put you in remembrance what 
halloe, halloe meanes. 

As he beats them, there appeares before him Gooddy Dickison, 
and the Boy upon the dogs, going in. 

Now blesse me heaven, one of the Greyhounds turn'd into a woman, the 
other into a boy ! The lad I never saw before, but her I know well ; it is 
my gammer Dickison. 

G. Dick. Sirah, you have serv d me well to swindge me thus. You yong 
rogue, you have vs'd me like a dog. 

Boy. When you had put your self into a dogs skin, I pray how c'ud I 
help it ; but gammer are not you a Witch ? if you bee, I beg upon my 
knees you will not hurt me. 

Dickis. Stand up my boie, for thou shalt have no harme, 
Be silent, speake of nothing thou hast seene. 
And here's a shilling for thee. 

Boy. Ile have none of your money, gammer, because you are a Witch ; 
and now she is out of her foure leg'd shape, ile see if with my two legs I 
can out-run her. 

Dickis. Nay sirra, though you be yong, and I old, you are not so nimble, 
nor I so lame, but I can overtake you. 

Boy. But Gammer what do you meane to do with me 
Now you have me ? 


mentioned, viz. Dickonson wife, Henry Priestley wife and 
her sone, Alice Har greaves widdowe, Jennet Davies, Wm. 

Dickis. To hugge thee, stroke thee, and embrace thee thus, 
And teach thee twentie thousand prety things, 
So thou tell no tales ; and boy this night 
Thou must along with me to a brave feast. 

Boy. Not I gammer indeed la, I dare not stay out late, 
My father is a fell man, and if I bee out long, will both 
chide and beat me. 

Dickis. Not sirra, then perforce thou shalt along, 
This bridle helps me still at need, • 

And shall provide us of a steed. 
Now sirra, take your shape and be 

Prepar'd to hurrie him and me. E%it. 

Now looke and tell mee wher's the lad become. 

Boy. The boy is vanisht, and I can see nothing in his stead 
But a white horse readie sadled and bridled. 

Dickis. And thats the horse we must bestride, 
On which both thou and I must ride, 
Thou boy before and I behinde, 
The earth we tread not, but the winde, 
For we must progresse through the aire, 
And I will bring thee to such fare 
As thou ne're saw'st, up and away, 
For now no longer we can stay. She catches him up, and turning 

Boy. Help, help. round. Exit." 

" Rob. What place is this ? it looks like an old barne : ile peep in at some 
cranny or other, and try if I can see what they are doing. Such a bevy of 
beldames did I never behold ; and cramming like so many Cormorants : 
Marry choke you with a mischiefe. 

Gooddy Dickison. Whoope, whurre, heres a sturre, 


Davies, uxor. Hen. Jacks and her sone John, James 
Hargreaves of Marsden, Miles wife of Dicks, James wife, 

But that we must have this demurre. 

Mai. A second course. 

Mrs. Gen. Pull, and pull hard 
For all that hath lately bin prepar d 
For the great wedding feast. 

Mall. As chiefe 
Of Doughtyes Surloine of rost Beefe. 

All. Ha, ha, ha. 

Meg. 'Tis come, 'tis come. ( 

Mawd. Where hath it all this while beene ? 

Meg. Some 
Delay hath kept it, now 'tis here, 
For bottles next of wine and beere, 
The Merchants cellers they shall pay for t. 

Mrs. Gener. Well, 
What sod or rost meat more, pray tell. 

Good. Dick. Pul for the Poultry, Foule, and Fish, 
For emptie shall not be a dish. 

Robin. A pox take them, must only they feed upon hot meat, and I upon 
nothing but cold sallads. 

Mrs. Gener. This meat is tedious, now some Farie, 
Fetch what belongs unto the Dairie, 

Mai. Thats Butter, Milk, Whey, Curds and Cheese, 
Wee nothing by the bargaine leese. 

All. Ha, ha, ha. Goody Dickison. Boy, theres meat for you. 

Boy. Thanke you. 

Gooddy Dickis. And drinke too. 

Meg. What Beast was by thee hither rid ? 

Mawd. A Badger nab. 

Meg. And I bestrid 
A Porcupine that never prick t. 


Saunders sicut credit, Lawrence wife of Saunders, Loynd 
wife, Buys wife of Barrowford, one Holgate and his 

Mai. The dull sides of a Beare I kickt. 
I know how you rid, Lady Nan. 

Mrs. Gen. Ha, ha, ha, upon the knave my man. 

Rob. A murrein take you, I am sure my hoofes payd for't. 

Boy. Meat lie there, for thou hast no taste, and drinke there, for thou 
hast no relish, for in neither of them is there either salt or savour. 

All. Pull for the posset, pull. 

Robin. The brides posset on my life, nay if they come to their spoone 
meat once, I hope theil breake up their feast presently. 

Mrs. Gen. So those that are our waiters nere, 
Take hence this Wedding cheere. 
We will be lively all, 
And make this barn our hall. 

Gooddy Dick. You our Familiers, come. 
In speech let all be dumbe, 
And to close up our Feast, 
To welcome every gest 
A merry round let's daunce. 

Meg. Some Musicke then ith aire 
Whilest thus by paire and paire, 
We nimbly foot it ; strike. Musick. 

Mai. We are obeyd. 

Sprite. And we hels ministers shall lend our aid. 

Dance and Song together. In the time of which the Boy speakes. 

Boy. Now whilest they are in their jollitie, and do not mind me, ile steale 
away, and shift for my selfe, though I lose my life for t. Exit'' 

***** * 


" Dought. He came to thee like a Boy thou sayest, about thine own 
bignesse ? 

Boy. Yes Sir, and he asked me where I dwelt, and what my name was. 


wife sicut credit, Litle Robin wife of Leonards, of the 
West Chase. 1 

Dough. Ah Rogue ! 

Boy. But it was in a quarrelsome way ; Whereupon I was as stout, and 
ask'd him who made him an examiner ? 

Bough. Ah good Boy. 

Mil. In that he was my Sonne. 

Boy. He told me he would know or heat it out of me, 
And I told him he should not, and bid him doe his worst ; 
And to't we went. 

Dough. In that he was my sonne againe, ha boy ; I see him at it now. 

Boy. We fought a quarter of an houre, till his sharpe nailes made my 
eares bleed. 

Dough. the grand Divell pare 'em. 

Boy. I wondred to finde him so strong in my hands, seeming but of mine 
owne age and bignesse, till I looking downe, perceived he had clubb'd 
cloven feet like Oxe feet ; but his face was as young as mine. 

Dought. A pox, but by his feet, he may be the Club-footed Horse- 
coursers father, for all his young lookes. 

Boy. But I was afraid of his feet, and ran from him towards a light that 
I saw, and when I came to it, it was one of the Witches in white upon a 
Bridge, that scar'd me backe againe, and then met me the Boy againe, and 
he strucke me and layd mee for dead. 

Mil. Till I wondring at his stay, went out and found him in the Trance ; 
since which time, he has beene haunted and frighted with Goblins, 40 
times ; and never durst tell any thing (as I sayd) because the Hags had so 
threatned him till in his sicknes he revealed it to his mother. 

Dough. And she told no body but folkes on't. Well Gossip Gretty, as 
thou art a Miller, and a close thiefe, now let us keepe it as close as we may 
till we take 'hem, and see them handsomly hanged o'the way : Ha my little 
CufFe-divell, thou art a made man. Come, away with me. Exeunt." 

Heywood and Broome's Late Lancashire Witches, Acts 2 and 3. 

1 These names are thus given in Barnes's Transcript : — 


"Edmund Robinson of Pendle, father of ye sd Edmunde 
Robinson, the aforesaid informer, upon oath saith, that upon 
All Saints' Day, he sent his sone, the aforesed informer, to 
fetch home two kyne to seale, and saith yt hee thought his 
sone stayed longer than he should have done, went to seeke 
him, and in seekinge him, heard him cry very pittifully, and 
found him soe afraid and distracted, yt hee neither knew his 
father, nor did know where he was, and so continued very 
neare a quarter of an hower before he came to himselfe, 1 

" Dickensons The wife of Duckers 

Henrie Priestleyes wife and his James Hargrave of Maresden 

ladd Loyards wife 

Alice Hargrave, widdowe • James wife 

Jane Davies (als. Jennet Device) Sanders wife, And as hee beleeveth 

William Davies Lawnes wife 

The wife of Henrie OfFep and Sander Pynes wife of Baraford 

her sonnes One Foolegate and his wife 

John and Myles And Leonards of the West Close." 

And thus in Webster : — 

" Dickensons Wife, Henry Priestleys Wife, and his Lad, Alice Hargreene 
Widow, Jane Davies, William Davies, and the Wife of Henry Fackes, and 
her Sons John and Miles, the Wife of Denneries, James Hargreene 

of Marsdead, Loynd's Wife, one James his Wife, Saunders his Wife, and 
Saunders himself sicut credit, one Laurence his Wife, one Saunder Pyn's 
Wife of Barraford, one Holgate and his Wife of Leonards of the West 

1 The learned "practitioner in physick," Mr. William Drage, in his 
"Treatise of Diseases from Witchcraft," published Lond. 1668, 4to. p. 22, 
recommends "birch" in such cases, "as a specifical medicine, antipathetical 
to demons." One can only lament that this valuable remedy was not 
vigorously applied in the present instance, as well as in most others in 


and he tould this informer, his father, all the particular 
passages yt are before declared in the said Edmund Robin- 
son, his sone's information." 

The name of Margaret Johnson does not appear in 
Edmund Robinson's examination. Whether accused or not, 
the opportunity was too alluring to be lost by a personage 
full of matter, being like old Mause Headrigg, " as a bottle 
that lacketh vent," and too desirous of notoriety, to let slip 
such an occasion. She made, on the 2nd of March following, 
before the same justices who had taken Robinson's exami- 
nation, the following confession, which must have been 
considered a most instructive one by those who were in 
search of some short vade mecum of the statistics of witch- 
craft in Pendle: — 

"The Confession of Margaret Johnson. 

" That betwixt seaven and eight yeares since, shee beeinge 
in her owne house in Marsden, in a greate passion of anger 

which these juvenile sufferers appear. I doubt whether, in the whole 
Materia Medica, a more powerful Lamia-fuge could have been discovered, 
or one which would have been more universally successful, if applied per- 
severingly, whenever the suspicious symptoms recurred. The following is, 
however, Drage's great panacea in these cases, a mode of treatment which 
must have been vastly popular, judging from its extensive adoption in all 
parts of the country: "Punish the witch, threaten to hang her if she helps 
not the sick, scratch her and fetch blood. When she is cast into prison the 
sick are some time delivered, some time he or she (they are most females, 
most old women, and most poor,) must transfer the disease to other persons, 
sometimes to a dog, or horse, or cow, fyc. Threaten her and beat her to remove 
it." — Drage, p. 23. 


and discontent, and withall pressed with some want, there 
appeared unto her a spirit or devill in ye proportion or 
similitude of a man, apparrelled in a suite of blacke, tyed 
about with silk points, who offered yt if shee would give 
him her soule hee would supply all her wants, and bringe to 
her whatsoever shee did neede. And at her appointment 
would in revenge either kill or hurt whom or what shee 
desyred, weare it man or beast. And saith, yt after a soli- 
citation or two shee contracted and covenanted with ye said 
devill for her soule. And yt ye said devill or spirit badde 
her call him by the name of Mamilian. And when shee 
would have him to doe any thinge for her, call in Mamilian, 
and hee would bee ready to doe her will. And saith, yt in 
all her talke or conference shee calleth her said devill, 
Mamil my God. Shee further saith, yt ye said Mamilian, 
her devill, (by her consent) did abuse and defile her body by 
comittinge wicked uncleannesse together. And saith, yt shee 
was not at the greate meetings at Hoarestones, at the forest 
of Pendle, upon All-Saints Day, where . But saith yt 

shee was at a second meetinge ye Sunday next after All- 
Saints Day, at the place aforesaid ; where there was at yt 
tyme between 30 and 40 witches, who did all ride to the 
said meetinge, and the end of theire said meeting was to 
consult for the killinge and hurtinge of men and beasts. 
And yt besides theire particular familiars or spirits, there 
was one greate or grand devill or spirit more eminent than 
the rest. And if any desyre to have a greate and more 
wonderfull devill, whereby they may have more power to 



hurt, they may have one such. And sayth, yt such witches 
as have sharp bones given them by the devill to pricke 
them, have no pappes or dugges whereon theire devill may 
sucke, but theire devill receiveth bloud from the place, 
pricked with the bone. And they are more grand witches 
than any yt have marks. Shee allsoe saith, yt if a witch 
have but one marke, shee hath but one spirit, if two then 
two spirits, if three yet but two spirits. And saith, yt theire 
spirits usually have knowledge of theire bodies. And being 
desyred to name such as shee knewe to be witches, shee 
named, &C. 1 And if they would torment a man, they bid 
theire spirit goe and tormt. him in any particular place. 
And yt Good-Friday is one constant day for a yearely 
generall meetinge of witches. And yt on Good-Friday last, 
they had a meetinge neare Pendle water syde. Shee alsoe 
saith, that men witches usually have women spirits, and 
women witches men spirits. And theire devill or spirit 
gives them notice of theire meetinge, and tells them the 
place where it must bee. And saith, if they desyre to be in 
any place upon a sodaine, theire devill or spirit will upon a 
rodde, dogge, or any thinge els, presently convey them 

1 The omission here is thus supplied in Baines's Transcript; but the actual 
names are scarcely to he recognised, from the clerical errors of the copy : — ■ 

" One Pickerne and his wife both of Wyndwall, 
Rawson of Clore and his wife 
Duffice wife of Clore by the water side 
Cartmell the wife of Clore 
And Jane of the hedgend in Maresden. 


thither : yea, into any roome of a man's house. But shee 
saith it is not the substance of theire bodies, but theire 
spirit assumeth such form and shape as goe into such 
roomes. Shee alsoe saith, yt ye devill (after he begins to 
sucke) will make a pappe or dugge in a short tyme, and the 
matter which hee sucks is blood. And saith yt theire 
devills can cause foule weather and storms, and soe did 
at theire meetings. Shee alsoe saith yt when her devill did 
come to sucke her pappe, hee usually came to her in ye 
liknes of a cat, sometymes of one colour and sometymes of 
an other. And yt since this trouble befell her, her spirit 
hath left her, and shee never sawe him since." 

On the evidence contained in these examinations several 
persons were committed for trial at Lancaster, and seven- 
teen, on being tried at the ensuing assizes, were found 
guilty by the jury. The judge before whom the trial took 
place was, however, more sagacious and enlightened than 
his predecessors, Bromley and Altham. He respited the 
execution of the prisoners ; and on the case being reported 
to the king in council, the Bishop of Chester, Dr. Bridgman, 
was required to investigate the circumstances. The inquiry 
was instituted at Chester, and four of the convicted witches, 
namely, Margaret Johnson, Frances Dickonson, Mary Spen- 
cer, and the wife of one of the Hargreaves's, were sent to 
London, and examined, first by the king's physicians and 
surgeons, and afterwards by Charles the first in person. 

" A stranger scene " to quote Dr. Whitaker's concluding 
paragraph " can scarcely be conceived ; and it is not easy to 


imagine whether the untaught manners, rude dialect, and 
uncouth appearance of these poor foresters, would more 
astonish the king; or his dignity of person and manners, 
together with the splendid scene with which they were sur- 
rounded, would overwhelm them. The end, however, of 
the business was, that strong presumptions appeared of the 
boy having been suborned to accuse them falsely, and they 
were accordingly dismissed. The boy afterwards confessed 
that he was suborned." 1 

In Dr. Whitaker's astonishment that Margaret Johnson 
should make the confession she appears to have done, in a 
clear case of imposture, few of his readers will be disposed 

1 Webster gives the sequel of this curious case of imposture : — " Four 
of them, to wit Margaret Johnson, Francis Dicconson, Mary Spenser, and 
Hargraves Wife, were sent for up to London, and were viewed and 
examined by his Majesties Physicians and Chirurgeons, and after by his 
Majesty and the Council, and no cause of guilt appearing but great pre- 
sumptions of the boys being suborned to accuse them falsely. Therefore it 
was resolved to separate the boy from his Father, they having both followed 
the women up to London, they were both taken and put into several prisons 
asunder. Whereupon shortly after the Boy confessed that he was taught 
and suborned to devise, and feign those things against them, and had per- 
severed in that wickedness by the counsel of his Father, and some others, 
whom envy, revenge and hope of gain had prompted on to that devillish 
design and villany j and he also confessed, that upon that day when he said 
that they met at the aforesaid house or barn, he was that very day a mile 
off, getting Plums in his Neighbours Orchard. And that this is a most 
certain truth, there are many persons yet living, of sufficient reputation and 
integrity, that can avouch and testifie the same ; and besides, what I write 
is the most of it true, upon my own knowledge, and the whole I have had 
from his own mouth." — Displaying of Witchcraft, p. 277. 


to participate, who are at all conversant with the trials of 
reputed witches in this country. Confessions were so com- 
mon on those occasions, that there is, I believe, not a single 
instance of any great number of persons being convicted of 
witchcraft at one time, some of whom did not make a con- 
fession of guilt. Nor is there anything extraordinary in 
that circumstance, when it is remembered that many of 
them sincerely believed in the existence of the powers 
attributed to them ; and others, aged and of weak under- 
standing, were, in a measure, coerced by the strong per- 
suasion of their guilt, which all around them manifested, 
into an acquiescence in the truth of the accusation. In 
many cases the confessions were made in the hope, and no 
doubt with the promise, seldom performed, that a respite 
from punishment would be eventually granted. In other 
instances, there is as little doubt, that they were the final 
results of irritation, agony, and despair. 1 The confessions 
are generally composed of " such stuff as dreams are made 
of," and what they report to have occurred, might either 
proceed, when there was no intention to fabricate, from inter- 
twining the fantastic threads which sometimes stream upon 
the waking senses from the land of shadows, or be caused 
by those ocular hallucinations of which medical science has 
supplied full and satisfactory solution. There is no argu- 
ment which so long maintained its ground in support of 

1 The confession in the " Amber Witch " is a true picture, drawn from 
the life. What is there, indeed, unlike truth in that wonderful fiction ? 


witchcraft as that which was founded on the confessions 
referred to. It was the last plank clung to by many a witch- 
believing lawyer and divine. And yet there is none which 
will less bear critical scrutiny and examination, or the 
fallacy of which can more easily be shown, if any particular 
reported confession is taken as a test and subjected to a 
searching analysis and inquiry. 

It is said that we owe to the grave and saturnine 
Monarch, who extended his pardon to the seventeen con- 
victed in 1633, that happy generalisation of the term, 
which appropriates honourably to the sex in Lancashire 
the designation denoting the fancied crime of a few miser- 
able victims of superstition. That gentle sex will never 
repudiate a title bestowed by one, little given to the playful 
sports of fancy, whose sorrows and unhappy fate have never 
wanted their commiseration, and who distinguished himself 
on this memorable occasion, at a period when 

" 'twas the time's plague 
That madmen led the blind," 

— in days when philosophy stumbled and murder arrayed 
itself in the robes of justice — by an enlightened exercise of 
the kingly prerogative of mercy. Proceeding from such a 
fountain of honour, and purified by such an appropriation, 
the title of witch has long lost its original opprobrium in 
the County Palatine, and survives only to call forth the 
gayest and most delightful associations. In process of time 


even the term witchfinder may lose the stains which have 
adhered to it from the atrocities of Hopkins, and may be 
adopted by general usage, as a sort of companion phrase, to 
signify the fortunate individual, who, by an union with a 
Lancashire witch, has just asserted his indefeasible title to 
be considered as the happiest of men. 

J. C. 






T H F 




With the Arraignement and Triall of 

Nineteene notorious Witches, at the Affizes and 

generall Gaole deliuerie, holden at the Caftle of 

Lancaster, vpon Munday, the fe- 

uenteenth of Auguji lajl, 

Before Sir Iames Altham, and 

Sir Edward Bromley, Knights; B a r o n s of his 

Maiefties Court ofExcHEQVER: And Iuftices 

of Afsize, Oyer and Terminor, and generall 

Graole deliuerie in the circuit of the 

North Parts. 

Together with the Arraignement and Triall of Iennet 

Preston, at the Af sizes holden at the Cajlle of Yorke, 

the feuen and twentieth day of Iulie lajl pajl, 

with her Execution for the murther 

of Mafter Lister 

by Witchcraft. 

Publiihed and fet forth by commandement of his Maiefties 
Iuftices of Affize in the North Parts. 

By Thomas Potts Efquier. 


Printed by W. Stansby for John Barnes, dwelling neare 
Holborne Conduit. I 6 I 3 . 

norable, THOMAS, LORD 


in the Countie of Yorke, my very honorable 
good Lord and Mqfter. 


Ladie Elizabeth Knyvet his Wife, my 

honorable good Ladie and 

M i s t ri s. 

Right Honorable, 


er in one. 

ET it ft and (I befeecty 
you) with your fauours 
whom profefsion of the 
fame true Religion 
towards God^ and fo 
great hue hath vnited 
Jointly to accept the 

The Epiftle 

Protection and Patronage of thefe my 
labours^ which not their owne worth hafty 
encouraged^ but your Worthineffe hafty 
enforced me to confecrate vnto your 

To you (Right Honourable my very 

good Lord) of Right doe they belong: 

for to whom fhall jf rather prefent the firfl 

fruits of my learning then to your Lord- 

fhip : who nouri/hed then both mee and 

them^ when there was fcarce any being to 

mee or them f And whofe iufl and vp- 

right carriage of caufes^ whofe zeale to 

yuflice and Honourable curtejie to all 

men^ haue purchafed you a Reuerend 

and worthie Refpect of all men in all 

partes of this Kingdome^ where you are 

knowne. And to your good Ladifhip 



they doe of great right belong likewife ; 
JVhofe Religion, Iuflice, and Honoura- 
ble admittance of my Vnworthie Seruice 
to your Ladijhip do challenge at my 
handes the vttermofl of what euer J 
may bee able to performe. 

Here is nothing of my own a8l worthie 
to bee commended to your Honours, it is 
the worke, of thofe Reuerend Ma- 
gift rates, His Maiejlies Iuflices of 
Afsizes in the North partes, and no 
more then a Particular Declaration 
of the proceedings of Iujlice in thofe 
partes. Here fhall you behold the Iu- 
jlice of this Land, truely adminijlred, 
Proemium & Poenam, Mercie and 
ludgement , freely and indifferently 
bejlowed and inflicted ; And aboue all 


The Epiftle 

thinges to bee remembred, the excellent 
care of thefe Judges in the Triall of of- 

It hath pleafed them out of their ref- 
peEl to mee to impofe this worke vpon tnee } 
and according to my vnderfianding, I 
haue taken paines to finifh, and now con- 
firmed by their ludgement to publifh the 
fame, for the benefit of my Countrie. 
That the example of thefe conuiEled vpon 
their owne Examinations, Confefsions, 
and Euidence at the Barre, may worke 
good in others, Rather by with-holding 
them from, then imboldening them to, 
the Atchieuing fuch defperate aEles as 
thefe or the like. 

Thefe are fome part of the fruits of 
my time fpent in the Seruice of my Coun- 


trie. Since by your Graue and Reuerend 
Counfell (my Good Lord) I reduced my 
wauering and wandring thoughts to a 
more quiet harbour of repofe. 

If it pleafe your Honours to giue them 
your Honourable refpeEl^ the world may 
iudge them the more worthie of accep- 
tance^ to whofe various cenfures they are 
now expofed. 

God of Heauen whofe eies are on 
them that feare him^ to bee their Prote- 
Elor and guide^ behold your Honours with 
the eye of fauor y be euermore your Jlrong 
hold) and your great reward^ and blejfe 
you with blefsings in this life^ Rxternall 
and Internally Temporall and Spiritually 
and with Eternall happines in the World 
to come : to which I commend your Ho- 

A nours : 

nours ; And rejl both now and euer^ From 
my Lodging in Chancerie Lane^ the fix- 
teenth of Nouember 1 6 1 2 . 

Your Honours 

humbly deuoted 


Thomas Potts, 

^^Pon the Arraignement and 
triall of thefe Witches at the 
laffc Afsizes and Generall 
Gaole - deliuerie , holden at 
Lancafter, wee found fuch apparent 
matters againft them, that we thought 
it neceffarie to publifh them to the 
World, and thereupon impofed the 
labour of this Worke vpon this Gen- 
tleman, by reafon of his place, being a 
Clerke at that time in Court, imploi- 
ed in the Arraignement and triall of 

Ja. Altharn. 
Edw. Bromley. 

Fter he had taken great paines 
to Jinijh it) J tooke vpon mee to 
reuife and correEl it, that no- 
thing might paffe but matter of FaEl, ap- 
parant again/} them by record, jft is very 
little he hath inferted, and that neceffa- 
rie, to Jhew what their offences were, what 
people, and of what condition they were : 
The whole proceedings and Ruidence a- 
gainjl them, J finde vpon examination 
carefully fet forth, and truely reported, 
and iudge the worke fit and worthie to 
be publijhed. 

Edward Bromley. 

Gentle Reader, although the care of this Gentleman the Author, was 
great to examine and publifh this his worke perfect according to the Ho- 
norable teftimonie of the Iudges, yet fome faults are committed by me in 
the Printing, and yet not many, being a worke done in fuch great hafte, 
at the end of a Tearme, which I pray you, with your fauour to excufe. 

A particular Declaration of 

the moft barberous and damnable Practifes, Mur- 

thers, wicked and diuelifh Confpiracies, practized 

and executed by the mqft dangerous and malitious 

Witch Elizabeth Sowthernes alias Demdike, 

of the Forreft of Pendle in the Countie of 

Lancafter Widdow, who died in the 

Caftle at Lancafter before fhe 

came to receiue her tryall. 

Hough publique Iuftice hath paffed 
at thefe Afsifes vpon the Capitall 
offendours, and after the Arraigne- 
ment & tryall of them, Iudgement 
y being giuen, due and timely Execu- 
tion fucceeded; which doth im- 
port and giue the greateft fatisfacti- 
on that can be, to all men ; yet be- 
caufe vpon the caryage, and euent of this bufmeffe, the 
Eyes of all the partes of Lancajhire, and other Counties 
in the North partes thereunto adioyning were bent: And 
fo infinite a multitude came to the Arraignement & tryall 
of thefe Witches at Lancafter, the number of them being 
knowen to exceed all others at any time heretofore, at one 
time to be indicted, arraigned, and receiue their tryall, es- 
pecially for fo many Murders, Confpiracies, Charmes, 
Meetinges, hellifh and damnable practifes, fo apparant 
vpon their owne examinations & confefsions. Thefe my 
honourable & worthy Lords, the Iudges of Afsife, vpon 

B. great 

The Arraignement and Try all 

great consideration, thought it neceffarie & profitable, to 
publifh to the whole world, their moft barbarous and 
damnable practifes, with the direct proceedinges of the 
Court againft them, afwell for that there doe paffe diuers 
vncertaine reportes and relations of fuch Euidences, as 
was publiquely giuen againft them at their Arraigne- 
ment. As for that diuers came to profecute againft many 
of them that were not found guiltie, and so reft very di£ 
contented, and not fatisfied. As alfo for that it is neceffary 
for men to know and vnderstande the meanes whereby 
they worke their mifchiefe, the hidden mifteries of their 
diuelifh and wicked Inchauntmentes, Charmes, and Sor- 
ceries, the better to preuent and auoyde the danger that 
may enfue. And laftly, who were the principall authors 
and actors in this late woefull and lamentable Tragedie, 
wherein fo much Blood was fpilt. 

Therefore I pray you giue me leaue, (with your pati- 
ence and fauour,) before I proceed to the Indictment, Ar- 
raignement, and Tryall of fuch as were prifoners in the 
Caftle, to lay open the life and death of this damnable and 
malicious Witch, of fo long continuance (old Demdike) 
of whom our whole bufineffe hath such dependence, that 
without the particular Declaration and Record of her 
Euidence, with the circumftaunces,, wee fhall neuer bring 
any thing to good perfection: for from this Sincke of vil- 
lanie and mifchiefe, haue all the reft proceeded ; as you fhall 
haue them in order. 

She was a very old woman, about the age of Foure- 
fcore yeares, and had been a Witch for fiftie yeares. 
Shee dwelt in the Forrest of Pendle, a vafte place, fitte for 
her profefsion: What fhee committed in her time, no 
man knowes. 

Thus liued fhee fecurely for many yeares, brought vp 


of Witches at Lancafter. 

her owne Children, inftructed her Graund-children, and 
tooke great care and paines to bring them to be Witches. 
Shee was a generall agent for the Deuill in all thefe partes : 
no man efcaped her, or her Furies, that euer gaue them 
any occafion of offence, or denyed them any thing they 
Hood need of: And certaine it is, no man neere them, was 
fecure or free from danger. 

But God, who had in his diuine prouidence prouided 
to cut them off, and roote them out of the Common- 
wealth, fo difpofed aboue, that the Iuftices of thofe partes, 
vnderftanding by a generall charme and muttering, the 
great and vniuerfall refort to Maulking Tower, the com- 
mon opinion, with the report of thefe fufpected people, 
the complaint of the Kinges fubiectes for the loffe of 
their Children, Friendes, Goodes, and Cattle, (as there 
could not be fo great Fire without fome Smoake,) fent 
for fome of the Countrey, and tooke great paynes to en- 
quire after their proceedinges, and courfes of life. 

In the end, Roger Nowell Efquire, one of his Maiefties 
Iuftices in these partes, a very religious honeft Gentle- 
man, painefull in the feruice of his Countrey: whofe 
fame for this great feruice to his Countrey, fhall Hue after 
him, tooke vpon him to enter into the particular exa- 
mination of thefe fufpected perfons: And to the honour 
of God, and the great comfort of all his Countrey, made 
fuch a difcouery of them in order, as the like hath not been 
heard of: which for your better fatisfaction, I haue heere 
placed in order againft her, as they are vpon Record, a- 
mongft the Recordes of the Crowne at Lancafter, certified 
by M. Nowell, and others. 

B 2 The 

The Arraignement and Try all 

The voluntarie Confefsion 

and Examination of Elizabeth Sowtherns alias 
Demdike, taken at the Fence in the For- 
reft of Pendle in the Oountie 
of Lancafter. 

The fecond day of Aprill, Annoq; Regni Regis Iacobi Ang- 
glice, Sfc. Decimo, et Scotice, Quadragejimo quinto ; 
Before Roger No well of Beade Efquire, one of his 
Maiefties Iuftices of the peace with- 
in the sayd Countie, Viz. 

He faid Elizabeth Sowtherns confeffeth, and 
fayth ; That about twentie yeares paft, as fhe 
was comming homeward from begging, 
there met her this Examinate neere vnto a 
Stonepit in Gouldjhey, in the fayd Forrest of 
Pendle, a Spirit or Deuill in the fhape of a Boy, the one 
halfe of his Coate blacke, and the other browne, who bade 
this Examinate flay, faying to her, that if fhe would giue 
him her Soule, fhe fhould haue any thing that fhe would 
requeft. Wherevpon this Examinat demaunded his name ? 
and the Spirit anfwered, his name was Tibb : and fo this 
Examinate in hope of fuch gaine as was promifed by the 
fayd Deuill or Tibb, was contented to giue her Soule to the 
faid Spirit : And for the space of fiue or fixe yeares next af- 
ter, the fayd Spirit or Deuill appeared at fundry times vnto 
her this Examinate about Bay-light Gate, alwayes bidding 
her flay, and asking her this Examinate what fhe would 


of Witches at Lancqfter. 

haue or doe? To whom this Examinate replyed, Nay no- 
thing : for flie this Examinate faid, fhe wanted nothing yet. 
And fo about the end of the faid fixe yeares, vpon a Sab- 
both day in the morning, this Examinate hauing a litle 
Child vpon her knee, and flie being in a (lumber, the fayd 
Spirit appeared vnto her in the likenes of a browne Dogg, 
forcing himfelfe to her knee, to get blood vnder her left 
Arme: and fhe being without any apparrell fauing her 
Smocke, the faid Deuill did get blood vnder her left arme. 
And this Examinate awaking, fayd, lefusfaue my Child ; but 
had no power, nor could not fay, Iefus faue her felfe: where- 
vpon the Browne Dogge vaniflied out of this Examinats 
fight : after which, this Examinate was almoft flarke madd 
for the fpace of eight weekes. 

And vpon her examination, fhe further confeffeth, and 
faith. That a little before Chriftmas laft, this Examinates 
Daughter hauing been to helpe Richard Baldwins Folkes 
at the Mill: This Examinates Daughter did bid her this 
Examinate goe to the fayd Baldwyns houfe, and afke him 
fome thing for her helping of his Folkes at the Mill, (as 
aforesaid :) and in this Examinates going to the faid Bald- 
wyns houfe, and neere to the fayd houfe, fhe mette with the 
faid Richard Baldwyn ; Which Baldwyn fayd to this Exa- 
minate, and the faid Alizon Deuice (who at that time 
ledde this Examinate, being blinde) get out of my ground 
Whores and Witches, I will burne the one of you, and 
hang the other. To whom this Examinate anfwered: I 
care not for thee, hang thy felfe : Prefently wherevpon, 
at this Examinates going ouer the next hedge, the faid 
Spirit or Diuell called Tibb, appeared vnto this Examinat, 
and fayd, Reuenge thee of him. To whom, this Examinate 
fayd againe to the faid Spirit. Revenge thee eyther of him, or 
his. And fo the faid Spirit vaniflied out of her fight, and fhe 

B 3. neuer 

The Arraignement and Try all 

neuer faw him fmce. 

And further this Examinate confeffeth, and fayth, that 
the fpeedieft way to take a mans life away by Witch- 
craft, is to make a Picture of Clay, like vnto the fhape of 
the perfon whom they meane to kill, & dry it thorowly: 
and when they would haue them to be ill in any one place 
more then an other; then take a Thorne or Pinne, and 
pricke it in that part of the Picture you would fo haue 
to be ill : and when you would haue any part of the 
Body to confume away, then take that part of the Picture, 
and burne it. And when they would haue the whole 
body to confume away, then take the remnant of the fayd 
Picture, and burne it: and fo therevpon by that meanes, 
the body fhall die. 


of Witches at Lancajler. 

The Confefsion and Exami- 

nation of Anne Whittle alias Chattox, being 

Prifoner at Lancafter; taken the 19 day of May, 

Annoq; Regni Regis Iacobi Anglice, Decimo : 

ac Scotie Quadragefimo quinto ; Before 

William Sandes Maior of the Bor- 

rough towne of Lancafter. 

lames Anderton of Clayton, one of his Maiefties Iuftices 

of Peace within the fame County, and Thomas 

Cowell one of his Maiefties Coroners in 

the fayd Countie of Lancafter, 


Irft, the fayd Anne Whittle, alias Chattoa?, fayth, 
that about foureteene yeares palt fhe entered, 
through the wicked perfwafions and counfell of 
Elizabeth Southerns, alias Demdike, and was 
feduced to condefcend & agree to become fub- 
iect vnto that diuelifh abhominable profefsion of Witchcraft: 
Soone after which, the Deuill appeared vnto her in the liknes 
of a Man, about midnight, at the houfe of the fayd Demdike'. 
and therevpon the sayd Demdike and fhee, went foorth 
of the faid houfe vnto him; wherevpon the faid wicked 
Spirit mooued this Examinate, that fhe would become his 
Subiect, and giue her Soule vnto him : the which at fecft, 
fhe refufed to aflent vnto ; but after, by the great perfwa- 
fions made by the fayd Demdike, fhee yeelded to be at his 
commaundement and appoyntment : wherevpon the fayd 
wicked Spirit then fayd vnto her, that hee muft haue 
one part of her body for him to fucke vpon; the which 
fhee denyed then to graunt vnto him ; and withall asked 


The Arraignement and Try all 

him, what part of her body hee would haue for that 
vfe; who faid, hee would haue a place of her right fide 
neere to her ribbes, for him to fucke vpon : whereunto 
fhee affented. 

And fhe further fayth, that at the fame time, there was 
a thing in the likenes of a fpotted Bitch, that came with 
the fayd Spirit vnto the fayd Demdike, which then did 
fpeake vnto her in this Examinates hearing, and fayd, that 
fhe fhould haue Gould, Siluer, and worldly Wealth, at 
her will. And at the fame time fhe faith, there was victuals, 
viz. Flefh, Butter, Cheefe, Bread, and Drinke, and bidde 
them eate enough. And after their eating, the Deuill cal- 
led Fancie, and the other Spirit calling himfelfe Tibbe, car- 
ried the remnant away : And fhe fayeth, that although they 
did eate, they were neuer the fuller, nor better for the fame ; 
and that at their faid Banquet, the faid Spirits gaue them 
light to fee what they did, although they neyther had fire 
nor Candle light ; and that they were both fhee Spirites, 
and Diuels. 

And being further examined how many fundry Perfon 
haue been bewitched to death, and by whom they were 
fo bewitched : She fayth, that one Robert Nuter, late of the 
Greene-head in Pendle, was bewitched by this Examinate, 
the faid Demdike, and Widdow Lomjhawe, (late of Burne- 
ley) now deceafed. 

And fhe further fayth, that the faid Demdike fhewed her, 
that fhe had bewitched to death, Richard AJJiton, Sonne 
of Richard AJhton of Downeham Efquire. 


of Witches at Lancafter. 

The Examination of Alizon 

Deuice, of the Forreft of Pendle, in the County 

of Lancafter Spinfter, taken at Reade in the faid 

Countie of Lancafter, the xiij. day of 

March, Anno Regni Jacobi Anglice, fyc. 

Nono : et Scotice xlv. 

Before Roger Nowell of Reade aforefayd Efquire, one of 

his Maiefties Iuftices of the Peace within the fayd 

Countie, againft Elizabeth Sowtherns, alias 

Demdike her Graund-mother. 


He fayd Alizon Deuice sayth, that about two 
yeares agon, her Graund-mother (called 
Elizabeth Sowtherns, alias old Demdike) did 
fundry times in going or walking togea- 
ther as they went begging, perfwade and 
aduife this Examinate to let a Deuill or Familiar appeare 
vnto her; and that fhee this Examinate, would let him 
fucke at fome part of her, and fhee might haue, and doe 
what fhee would. 

And fhe further fayth, that one John Nutter of the Bul- 
hole in Pendle aforefaid, had a Cow which was ficke, & re- 
quefted this examinats Grand-mother to amend the faid 
Cow; and her faid Graund-mother faid fhe would, and fo 
her faid Graund-mother about ten of the clocke in the 
night, defired this examinate to lead her foorth ; which this 
Examinate did, being then blind : and her Graund-mother 
did remaine about halfe an houre foorth : and this Exami- 
nates fitter did fetch her in againe ; but what fhe did when 
fhe was fo foorth, this Examinate cannot tell. But the next 

C. morning, 

The Arraignemeyit and Try all 

morning this Examinate heard that the fayd Cow was 
dead. And this Examinate verily thinketh, that her fayd 
Graund-mother did bewitch the fayd Cow to death. 

And further, this Examinate fayth, that about two 
yeares agon, this Examinate hauing gotten a Piggin full of 
blew Milke by begging, brought it into the houfe of her 
Graund-mother, where (this Examinate going foorth pre- 
fently, and flaying about halfe an houre) there was Butter 
to the quantity of a quarterne of a pound in the faid milke, 
and the quantitie of the faid milke flill remayning ; and her 
Graund-mother had no Butter in the house when this Ex- 
aminate went foorth : duering which time, this Exami- 
nates Graund-mother ftill lay in her bed. 

And further this Examinate sayth, that Richard Baldwin 
of Weethead within the Forrefl of Pendle, about 2. yeeres 
agoe, fell out with this Examinates Graund-mother, & fo 
would not let her come vpon his Land : and about foure 
or fiue dayes then next after, her said Graund-mother did 
requeft this Examinate to lead her foorth about ten of the 
clocke in the night: which this Examinate accordingly 
did, and fhe flayed foorth then about an houre, and this 
Examinates fifler fetched her in againe. And this Exami- 
nate heard the next morning, that a woman Child of the 
fayd Ri chard Baldwins was fallen ficke ; and as this Exa- 
minate did then heare, the fayd Child did languifh after- 
wards by the fpace of a yeare, or thereaboutes, and dyed : 
And this Examinate verily thinketh, that her faid Graund- 
mother did bewitch the fayd Child to death. 

And further, this Examinate fayth, that fhe heard her 
fayd Graund-mother fay prefently after her falling out 
with the fayd Baldwin, fhee would pray for the fayd Bald- 
win both flill and loude : and this Examinate heard her 
curffe the fayd Baldwin fundry times. 


The Examination of lames Deuice of the Forreft of 

Pendle, in the Countie of Lancajler Labourer, taken the 

27. day of April, Annoq; Regni Regis lacobi, Anglice, §c. 

Decimo : ac Scotie Quadragefimo quinto : Before 

Roger Nowell and Nicholas Banifter, Efq. 

*two of his Maiefties Iuftices of Peace within 

the fayd Countie. 

HE fayd Examinate lames Deuice fayth, 
that about a month agoe, as this Exami- 
nate was comming towards his Mothers 
houfe, and at day-gate of the fame night, Euening. 
this Examinate mette a browne Dogge 
comming from his Graund-mothers houfe, about tenne 
Roodes diftant from the fame houfe : and about two or 
three nights after, that this Examinate heard a voyce of a 
great number of Children fcreiking and crying pittifully, 
about day-light gate ; and likewife, about ten Roodes di- 
ftant of this Examinates fayd Graund-mothers houfe. 
And about fiue nights then next following, prefently after 
daylight, within 20. Roodes of the fayd Elizabeth Sow- 
therm house, he heard a foule yelling like vnto a great 
number of Cattes : but what they were, this Examinate 
cannot tell. And he further fayth, that about three nights 
after that, about midnight of the fame, there came a thing, 
and lay vpon him very heauily about an houre, and went 
then from him out of his Chamber window, coloured 
blacke, and about the bigneffe of a Hare or Catte. And 
he further fayth, that about S. Peter's day laft, one Henry 
Bullocke came to the fayd Elizabeth Sowtherns houfe, and 
fayd, that her Graund-child Alizon Deuice, had bewitched 
a Child of his, and defired her that fhe would goe with 
him to his houfe ; which accordingly fhe did : And there- 
vpon fhe the faid Alizon fell downe on her knees, & asked 
the faid Bullocke forgiuenes, and confeffed to him, that fhe 
had bewitched the faid child, as this Examinate heard his 
faid lifter confeffe vnto him this Examinate. 

C 2 The 

The Arraignement and Try all 

The Examination of Eliza- 

beth Deuice, Daughter of old Demdike, taken 

at Read before Roger NoweU Efquire, one of 

his Maiefties Iuftices of Peace within the 

Oountie of Lancafter the xxx. day 

of March, Annoq; RegniJacobi 

Decimo, ac Scotie cclv. 

He fayd Elizabeth Deuice the Exa- 
nimate, fayth, that the fayd Eliza- 
beth Sowtherns, alias Demdike, hath 
had a place on her left fide by the 
fpace of fourty yeares, in fuch fort, 
as was to be feene at this Exami- 
nates Examination taking, at this 
prefent time. 

Heere this worthy Iuftice M. Nowell, out of thefe par- 
ticular Examinations, or rather Accufations, finding mat- 
ter to proceed ; and hauing now before him old Demdike, 
old Chattox, Alizon Deuice, and Redferne both old and 
young, Reos confitentes, et Accuf antes Inuicem* About the 
fecond of Aprill laft pall, committed and fent them away 
to the Caftle at Lancajler, there to remaine vntill the com- 
ming of the Kinges Maiefties Iuftices of Afsife, then to 
receiue their tryall. 


of Witches at Lancqfter. 

But heere they had not flayed a weeke, when their 
Children and Friendes being abroad at libertie, laboured a 
fpeciall meeting at Malking Tower in the Forreft of Pen- 
die, vpon Good-fryday, within a weeke after they were 
committed, of all the moft dangerous, wicked, and dam- 
nable Witches in the County farre and neere. Vpon 
Good-fryday they met, according to folemne appoynt- 
ment, folemnized this great Feaftiuall day according to 
their former order, with great cheare, merry company, 
and much conference. 

In the end, in this great Affemblie, it was decreed M. 
Couell by reafon of his Office, fhall be flaine before the 
next Afsifes: The Caftle of Lancqfter to be blowen vp, 
and ayde and affiftance to be fent to kill M. Lifter, with 
his old Enemie and wicked Neighbour Iennet Pre/ion ; 
with fome other fuch like practifes: as vpon their Ar- 
raignement and Tryall, are particularly fet foorth, and gi- 
uen in euidence againft them. 

This was not fo fecret, but fome notice of it came to M. 
Nowell, and by his great paines taken in the Examination 
of Iennet Deuice, al their practifes are now made knowen. 
Their purpofe to kill M. Couell, and blow vp the Caftle, 
is preuented. All their Murders, Witchcraftes, Inchaunt- 
ments, Charmes, & Sorceries, are difcouered ; and euen in 
the middeft of their confultations, they are all confoun- 
ded, and arretted by Gods Iuftice : brought before M. 
Nowell, and M. Bannejier, vpon their voluntary confefsi- 
ons, Examinations, and other Euidence accufed, and fo 
by them committed to the Caftle : So as now both old 
and young, haue taken vp their lodgings with M. Couell, 
vntill the next Afsifes, expecting their Tryall and deli- 
uerance, according to the Lawes prouided for fuch 

C3 In 

The Arraignement and Try all 

In the meane time, M. Nowell hairing knowledge by 
this difcouery of their meeting at Malkeing Tower, and 
their refolution to execute mifchiefe, takes great paines to 
apprehend fuch as were at libertie, and prepared Euidence 
againft all fuch as were in queftion for Witches. 

Afterwardes fendes fome of thefe Examinations, to the 
Afsifes at Yorke, to be giuen in Evidence againft Iennet 
Prejion, who for the murder of M. Lifter, is condemned 
and executed. 

The Circuite of the North partes being now almoft 

The 16. of Auguft. 

Vpon Sunday in the after noone, my honorable Lords 
the Iudges of Afsife, came from Kendall to Lancajier. 

Wherevpon M. Couell. prefented vnto their Lordfhips 
a Calender, conteyning the Names of the Prifoners com- 
mitted to his charge, which were to receiue their Tryall at 
the Afsifes: Out of which, we are onely to deale with the 
proceedings againft Witches, which were as folio weth. 
Viz. ■ 


of Witches at Lancqfier. 

The Names of the 

Witches committed to the 
Caftle of Lancqfter. 

Elizabeth Sowtherns. ") Who dyed before 

alias > mee 

Old Demdike. ) came to her tryall. 

Anne Whittle, alias Chattow. 

Elizabeth Deuice, Daughter of old Demdike. 

lames Deuice, Sonne of Elizabeth Deuice. 

Anne Readfearne, Daughter of Anne Chatto<r. 

Alice Nutter. 

Katherine Hewytte. 

Iohn Bulcocke. 

lane Bulcocke. 

Alizon Deuice, Daughter of Elizabeth Deuice. 

Ifabell Robey. 

Magaret Pearfon. 

The Witches of Salmef bury. 

Iennet Bierley. \ f Elizabeth AJlley. 

Elen Bierley. I J Alice Gray. 

lane Southworth. 
Iohn Ramefden. 

Ifabell Sidegraues. 
, Lawrence Haye. 

The next day, being Monday, the 17. of August, were 
the Afsifes holden in the Caftle of Lancajler, as fol- 


The Arraignement and Try all 

Placita Coronee. 

anc.ffs. Illllilljjjlfj) Eliber atio Gaolce Domini Regis Cajlrifui Lan- 

casjlr. ac Prifonarioru in eadem exiftent. Tenta 

apud Lancajlr. in com. Lancqftr. Die Lunce, 

Decimo feptimo die Augujli, Anno Reqni 

Domini nojlri Iacobi dei gratia Anglice, Fran- 

cics, et Hibernice, Regis fidei defenforis ; Decimo : et Scotice 

Quadragefimo fexto; Coram Iacobo Altham Milit. vno 

Baronnm Scaccarij Domini Regis, et Edwardo Bromley 

Milit. altero Baronum eiufdem Scaccarij Domini Regis: 

ac Iujlic. dicti Domini Regis apud Lancqftr. 

VPon the Tewefday in the after noone, the Iudges 
according to the courfe and order, deuided them 
felues, where vpon my Lord Bromley, one of his 
Maiefties Iudges of Afsife comming into the Hall to 
proceede with the Pleaes of the Crowne, & the Arraigne- 
ment and Tryall of Prifoners, commaunded a generall 
Proclamation, that all Iuftices of Peace that had taken 
any Recognifaunces, or Examinations of Prifoners, 
fhould make Returne of them: And all fuch as were 
bound to profecute Indictmentes, and giue Euidence 
againft Witches, fhould proceede, and giue attendance: 
For hee now intended to proceede to the Arraignement 
and Tryall of Witches. 

After which, the Court being fet, M. SheriefFe was 
commaunded to prefent his Prifoners before his Lord- 
fhip, and prepare a fufficient Iurie of Gentlemen for life 
and death. But heere we want old Demdike, who dyed in 
the Caftle before fhe came to her tryall. 


of Witches at Lancqfter. 

Heere you may not expect the exact order of the Afsi- 
fes, with the Proclamations, and other folemnities belong- 
ing to fo great a Court of Iuftice; but the proceedinges 
againft the Witches, who are now vpon their deliue- 
rance here in order as they came to the Barre, with the 
particular poyntes of Euidence againft them : which is the 
labour and worke we now intend (by Gods grace) to per- 
forme as we may, to your generall contentment. 

Where vpon, the firft of all thefe, Anne Whittle, alias 
Chattooa, was brought to the Barre : againft whom wee 
are now ready to proceed. 


The Arraignement and Try all 



The Arraignement and 

Tryall of Anne Whittle, alias Chattox, 

of the Forreft of Pendle, in the Coun- 

tie of Lancqfier, Widdow ; 

about the age of Foure- 

fcore yeares, or there- 


Anne Whittle, alias Chattox. 

F in this damnable courfe of life, and offen- 
ces, more horrible and odious, then any 
man is able to expreffe : any man lyuing 
could lament the eftate of any fuch like 
vpon earth : The example of this poore 
creature, would haue moued pittie, in refpect of her 
great contrition and repentance, after fhe was committed 
to the Caftle at Lancajler, vntill the comming of his 
Maiesties Iudges of Afsife. But fuch was the nature of 
her offences, & the multitude of her crying finnes, as it 
tooke away all fenfe of humanity. And the repetition 
of her hellifh practifes, and Reuenge ; being the chiefeft 
thinges wherein fhe alwayes tooke great delight, togea- 
ther with a particular declaration of the Murders fhee 
had committed, layde open to the world, and giuen in 
Euidence againft her at the time of her Arraignement and 


of Witches at Lancajier. 

Tryall ; as certainely it did beget contempt in the Audi- 
ence, and fuch as flie neuer offended. 

This Anne Whittle, alias Chattow, was a very old withe- 
red fpent and decreped creature, her fight almoft gone : A 
dangerous Witch, of very long continuance ; alwayes 
oppofite to old Demdike : For whom the one fauoured, Her owi 
the other hated deadly : and how they enuie and accufe examine 
one an other, in their Examinations, may appeare. 

In her Witchcraft, alwayes more ready to doe mifchiefe 
to mens goods, then themfelues. Her lippes euer chat- 
tering and walking : but no man knew what. She liued 
in the Forreft of Pendle, amongft this wicked company of 
dangerous Witches. Yet in her Examination and Con- 
fefsion, fhe dealt alwayes very plainely and truely : for 
vpon a fpeciall occafion being oftentimes examined in 
open Court, fhee was neuer found to vary, but alwayes 
to agree in one, and the felfe fame thing. 

I place her in order, next to that wicked fire-brand of 
mifchiefe, old Demdike, becaufe from thefe two, fprung 
all the reft in order : and were the Children and Friendes, 
of thefe two notorious Witches. 

Many thinges in the difcouery of them, fhall be very 
worthy your obferuation. As the times and occafions to 
execute their mifchiefe. And this in generall : the Spirit 
could neuer hurt, till they gaue confent. 

And, but that it is my charge, to fet foorth a particular 
Declaration of the Euidence againft them, vpon their 
Arraignement and Tryall; with their Diuelifh practifes, 
confutations, meetings, and murders committed by them, 

D2 in 

The Arraignement and Try all 

in fuch fort, as they were giuen in Euidence againft them ; 
for the which, I fhall haue matter vpon Record. I could 
make a large Comentarie of them : But it is my humble 
duety, to obferue the Charge and Commaundement of 
thefe my Honorable good Lordes the Iudges of Afsife, 
and not to exceed the limits of my Commifsion. Where- 
fore I fhall now bring this auncient Witch, to the due 
courfe of her Tryall, in order. viz. 


THis Anne Whittle, alias Chattow, of the Forreft of 
Pendle in the Countie of Lancajler Widdow, being 
Indicted, for that fhee felonioufly had practifed, 
vfed, and exercifed diuers wicked and diuelifh Artes cal- 
led Witchcraftes, Inchauntmentes, Charmes, and Sorce- 
ries, in and vpon one Robert Nutter of Greenehead, in the 
Forreft of Pendle, in the Countie of Lane : and by force 
of the fame Witchcraft, felonioufly the sayd Robert Nut- 
ter had killed, Contra Pacem, fyc. Being at the Barre, was 

To this Indictment, vpon her Arraignement, fliee 
pleaded, Not guiltie : and for the tryall of her life, put her 
felfe vpon God and her Country. 

Wherevpon my Lord Bromley commaunded M. She- 
riffe of the County of Lancajler in open Court, to returne 
a Iurie of worthy fufficient Gentlemen of vnderftanding, 
to paffe betweene our foueraigne Lord the Kinges Ma- 
ieftie, and her, and others the Prifoners, vpon their Hues 
and deathes; as hereafter follow in order: who were af- 
terwardes fworne, according to the forme and order of 


of Witches at Lancq/ier. 

the Court, the Prifoners being admitted to their lawfull 

Which being done, and the Prifoner at the Barre rea- 
die to receiue her Tryall: M. Nowell, being the beft in- 
ftructed of any man, of all the particular poyntes of Eui- 
dence againft her, and her fellowes, hauing taken great 
paynes in the proceedinges againft her and her fellowes ; 
Humbly prayed, her owne voluntary Confefsion and 
Examination taken before him, when fhe was apprehen- 
ded and committed to the Caftle of Lancq/ier for Witch- 
craft ; might openly be published againft her : which here- 
after followeth. Viz. 

The voluntary Confefsion and Examination of 

Anne Whittle, alias Chattow, taken at the Fence in the 

Forreft of Pendle, in the Countie of Lancafter ; 

Before Roger Nowell Efq, one of the 

Kinges Maiefties Iuftices of Peace 

in the Countie of Lancafter. 


He fayd Anne Whittle, alias Chattow, vp- 
on her Examination, voluntarily confef- 
feth, and fayth, That about foureteene or 
fifteene yeares agoe, a thing like a Chrifti- 
an man for foure yeares togeather, did fun- 
dry times come to this Examinate, and requefted this Ex- 
animate to giue him her Soule : And in the end, this Ex- 
aminate was contented to giue him her fayd Soule, fliee 
being then in her owne houfe, in the Forreft of Pendle ; 
wherevpon the Deuill then in the fhape of a Man, fayd to 
this Examinate : Thou fhalt want nothing ; and be reuen- 
ged of whom thou lift. And the Deuill then further com- 

D 3. maun- 

The Arraignement and Try all 

maunded this Examinate, to call him by the name of Fan- 
cie ; and when fhe wanted any thing, or would be reuen- 
ged of any, call on Fancie, and he would be ready. And 
the fayd Spirit or Deuill, did appeare vnto her not long 
after, in mans likeneffe, and would haue had this Exami- 
nate to haue confented, that he might hurt the wife of 
Richard Baldwin of Pendle ; But this Examinate would 
not then confent vnto him: For which caufe, the fayd 
Deuill would then haue bitten her by the arme ; and fo 
vanifhed away, for that time. 

And this Examinate further fayth, that Robert Nutter 
did defire her Daughter one Redfearns wife, to haue his 
pleafure of her, being then in Redfearns houfe : but the 
fayd Redfearns wife denyed the fayd Robert; wherevpon 
the fayd Robert feeming to be greatly difpleafed there- 
with, in a great anger tooke his Horfe, and went away, 
faying in a great rage, that if euer the Ground came to 
him, fhee fhould neuer dwell vpon his Land. Where- 
vpon this Examinate called Fancie to her ; who came to 
her in the likeneffe of a Man in a parcell of Ground cal- 
led, The Laund ; asking this Examinate, what fhee would 
haue him to doe? And this Examinate bade him goe re- 
uenge her of the fayd Robert Nutter. After which time, 
the fayd Robert Nutter liued about a quarter of a yeare, 
and then dyed. 

And this Examinate further fayth, that Elizabeth Nut- 
ter, wife to old Robert Nutter, did requeft this Examinate, 
and Loomejhaws wife of Burley, and one lane Boothman, of 
the fame, who are now both dead, (which time of requeft, 
was before that Robert Nutter defired the company of 
Redfearns wife) to get young Robert Nutter his death, if 


of Witches at Lancafier. 

they could; all being togeather then at that time, to that 
end, that if Robert were dead, then the Women their 
Coofens might haue the Land : By whofe perfwafion, they 
all confented vnto it. After which time, this Examinates 
Sonne in law Thomas Redfearne, did perfwade this Ex- 
animate, not to kill or hurt the fayd Robert Nutter; for 
which perfwafion, the fayd Loomejhaws Wife, had like to 
haue killed the fayd Redfearne, but that one M. Baldwyn 
(the late Schoole-maifter at Coulne) did by his learning, 
flay the fayd Loomejhaws wife, and therefore had a Capon 
from Redfearne. 

And this Examinate further fayth, that fhe thinketh the 
fayd Loomejhaws wife, and lane Boothman, did what they 
could to kill the fayd Robert Nutter, as well as this Exa- 
minate did. 


of Witches at Lancajter. 

The Examination of Elizabeth 
Sothernes, alias Old Dembdike: taken at 
the Fence in the Forrejl of Pendle in the Countie of Lan- 
cafier, the day and yeare aforefaid. 

Roger Nowel Ef quire, one of the Kings Maiejlies 
Iujlices of Peace in the faid Countie, againjl Anne 
Whittle, alias Chattox. 

THe faid Elizabeth Southernes faith vpon her Exami- 
nation, that about halfe a yeare before Robert Nut- 
ter died, as this Examinate thinketh, this Examinate 
went to the houfe of Thomas Redfearne, which was a- 
bout Mid-fommer, as this Examinate remembreth it. 
And there within three yards of the Eaft end of the faid 
houfe, fhee faw the faid Anne Whittle, alias Chattox, and 
Anne Redferne wife of the faid Thomas Redferne, and 
Daughter of the faid Anne Whittle, alias Chattox : the one 
on the one fide of the Ditch, and the other on the other : 
and two Pictures of Clay or Marie lying by them : and 
the third Picture the faid Anne Whittle, alias Chattox, was 
making: and the faid Anne Redferne her faid Daughter, 
wrought her Clay or Marie to make the third picture 
withall. And this Examinate paffmg by them, the faid 
Spirit, called Tibb, in the fhape of a black Cat, appeared 
vnto her this Examinate, and faid, turne back againe, and 
doe as they doe : To whom this Examinate faid, what 
are they doing? whereunto the faid Spirit faid; they 
are making three Pictures : whereupon fhe asked whofe 
pictures they were ? whereunto the faid Spirit faid ; they 

E are 

The Arraignement and Triall 

are the pictures of Chriftopher Nutter, Robert Nutter, and 
Marie, wife of the faid Robert Nutter : But this Exami- 
nate denying to goe back to helpe them to make the Pi- 
ctures aforefaid ; the faid Spirit feeming to be angrie, 
therefore fhoue or pufhed this Examinate into the 
ditch, and fo fhed the Milke which this Examinate had 
in a Can or Kit : and fo thereupon the Spirit at that time 
vanifhed out of this Examinates fight : But prefently af- 
ter that, the faid Spirit appeared to this Examinate a- 
gaine in the fhape of a Hare, and fo went with her a- 
bout a quarter of a mile, but faid nothing to this Exa- 
minate, nor fhee to it. 

The Examination and euidence of Iames 
Robinson, taken the day and yeare aforefaid. 

Roger Nowel Ef quire aforefaid, againji Anne 
Whittle, alias Chattox, Prifoner at the Barre 
as followeth. viz. 

THe faid Examinate faith, that about fixe yeares a- 
goe, Anne Whittle, alias Chattox, was hired by this 
Examinates wife to card wooll; and fo vpon a Friday 
and Saturday, fhee came and carded wooll with this Ex- 
aminates wife, and fo the Munday then next after fhee 
came likewife to card: and this Examinates wife hauing 
newly tunned drinke into Stands, which flood by the 
faid Anne Whittle, alias Chattox: and the faid Ann Whittle 
taking a Difli or Cup, and drawing drinke feuerall times : 


of Witches at Lancajler. 

and fo neuer after that time, for fome eight or nine 
weekes, they could haue any drinke, but fpoiled, and as 
this Examinate thinketh was by the meanes of the faid 
Chattow. And further he faith, that the faid Anne Whittle, 
alias Chattox, and Anne Redferne her faid Daughter, 
are commonly reputed and reported to bee Witches. 
And hee alfo faith, that about fome eighteene yeares a- 
goe, he dwelled with one Robert Nutter the elder, of 
Pendle aforefaid. And that yong Robert Nutter, who 
dwelled with his Grand-father, in the Sommer time, he 
fell ficke, and in his faid fickneife hee did feuerall times 
complaine, that hee had harme by them : and this Exa- 
minate asking him what hee meant by that word Them, 
He faid, that he verily thought that the faid Anne Whit- 
tle, alias Chattox, and the faid Redfernes wife, had be- 
witched him: and the faid Robert Nutter fhortly after, 
being to goe with his then Mafter, called Sir Richard 
Shattleworth, into Wales, this Examinate heard him 
fay before his then going, vnto the faid Thomas Red- 
feme, that if euer he came againe he would get his Fa- 
ther to put the faid Redferne out of his houfe, or he him- 
felfe would pull it downe ; to whom the faid Redferne 
replyed, faying ; when you come back againe you will 
be in a better minde : but he neuer came back againe, but 
died before Candlemas in Chefhire, as he was comming 

Since the voluntarie confeffion and examination of a 
Witch, doth exceede all other euidence, I fpare to 
trouble you with a multitude of Examinations , 
or Depositions of any other witneffes , by reafon 
this bloudie fact, for the Murder of Robert Nutter, 
vpon fo fmall an occafion, as to threaten to take away 

E2 his 

The Arraignement and Triall 

his owne land from fuch as were not worthie to inha- 
bite or dwell vpon it, is now made by that which you 
haue alreadie heard, fo apparant, as no indifferent man 
will queftion it, or reft vnfatisfied : I fhall now proeeede 
to fet forth vnto you the reft of her actions, remaining 
vpon Record. And how dangerous it was for any man 
to Hue neere these people, to giue them any occafion of 
offence, I leaue it to your good confideration. 

The Examination and voluntarie Con- 
fefsion 0/ Anne Whittle, alias Chattox, ta- 
ken at the Fence in the Forreji of Pendle, in the Countie 
of Lancqfter, the fecond day of ApriU, Anno Regni 
Regis Iacobi Anglia?, Francise, & Hibernise, de- 
cimo & Scotise xlv. 

Roger Now el, Ef quire, one of his Maiejlies 
Iujlices of Peace within the Countie of Lancqfter. 

SHe the faid Examinate faith, That Ihee was fent for 
by the wife of John Moore, to helpe drinke that was 
forspoken or bewitched: at which time ihee vfed this 
Prayer for the amending of it, viz. 

A Charme. 

Three Biters haft thou bitten, 
The Hart, ill Eye, ill Tonge : 


of Witches at Lancqfier. 

Three bitter Jhall be thy Boote, 
Father, Sonne, and Holy Ghoji 
a Gods name, 

Fiue Pater-nojlers, fiue A uies, 
and a Creede, 

In worjhip of fiue wounds 
of our Lord. 

After which time that this Examinate had vfed thefe 
prayers, and amended her drinke, the faid Moores wife 
did chide this Examinate, and was grieued at her. 

And thereupon this Examinate called for her Deuill 
Fancie, and bad him goe bite a browne Cow of the faid 
Mooi*es by the head, and make the Cow goe madde : and 
the Deuill then, in the likeneffe of a browne Dogge, 
went to the faid Cow, and bit her: which Cow went 
madde accordingly, and died within fix weekes next af- 
ter, or thereabouts. 

Alfo this Examinate faith, That fhe perceiuing An- 
thonie Nutter of Pendle to fauour Elizabeth Sothernes, 
alias Dembdike, fhe, this Examinate, called Fancie to her, 
(who appeared like a man) and bad him goe kill a Cow 
of the faid Anthonies; which the faid Deuill did, and 
that Cow died alfo. 

And further this Examinate faith, That the Deuill, 
or Fancie, hath taken moil of her fight away from her. 
And further this Examinate saith, That in Summer 
laft, faue one, the faid Deuill, or Fancie, came vpon this 
Examinate in the night time: and at diuerfe and fun- 
dry times in the likeneffe of a Beare, gaping as though 
he would haue wearied this Examinate. And the laft 
time of all fhee, this Examinate, faw him, was vpon 

E 3 Thurf- 

The Arraignement and Triall 

Thurfday laft yeare but one, next before Midfummer 
day, in the euening, like a Beare, and this Examinate 
would not then fpeake vnto him, for the which the faid 
Deuill pulled this Examinate downe. 

The Examination of Iames Device, 
fonne of Elizabeth Device, taken the feuen and 
twentieth day of A prill, Annoq; Reg. Regis Iacobi 
Angliae, &c. Decimo ac Scotise xlv. 

Roger Now el and Nicholas Banister, 
Ef quires, two of his Maiejlies Iujlices of the Peace with- 
in the faid Countie. viz. 

ANd further faith, That twelue yeares agoe, the faid 
Anne Chattow at a Buriall at the new Church in 
Pendle, did take three fcalpes of people, which had been 
buried, and then caft out of a graue, as ihe the faid Chat- 
tow told this Examinate; and tooke eight teeth out of 
the faid Scalpes, whereof fhe kept foure to her felfe, and 
gaue other foure to the faid Demdike, this Examinates 
Grand-mother: which foure teeth now fhewed to this 
Examinate, are the foure teeth that the faid Chattow gaue 
to his faid Grand-mother, as aforefaid; which faid 
teeth haue euer fince beene kept, vntill now found by 
the faid Henry Hargreiues & this Examinate, at the Weft- 
end of this Examinates Grand-mothers houfe, and 
there buried in the earth, and a Picture of Clay there 
likewife found by them, about halfe a yard ouer in the 


of Witches at Lancqfler. 

earth, where the faid teeth lay, which faid picture lb 
found was almoft withered away, and was the Picture 
of Anne, Anthony Nutters daughter; as this Examinates 
Grand-mother told him. 

The Examination of Allizon De- 
vice daughter o/Elizabeth Device: Taken at 
Meade, in the Countie of Lancqfler, the thirtieth day of 
March, Annoq; Reg. Regis Iacobi nunc Anglia?, 
&c. Decimo, & Scotise Quadragefimo quinto. 

Roger Now el of Reade aforefaid, Ef quire, one 
of his Maiejiies Iujiices of the Peace, within the faid 

THis Examinate faith, that about eleuen yeares a- 
goe, this Examinate and her mother had their fire- 
houfe broken, and all, or the mod part of their linnen 
clothes, & halfe a peck of cut oat-meale, and a quantitie 
of meale gone, all which was worth twentie fhillings, or 
aboue: and vpon a Sunday then next after, this Exami- 
nate did take a band and a coife, parcell of the goods a- 
forefaid, vpon the daughter of Anne Whittle, alias Chat- 
tox, and claimed them to be parcell of the goods ftolne, 
as aforefaid. 

And this Examinate further faith, That her father, 
called Iohn Deuice, being afraid, that the faid Anne Chat- 
tow fhould doe him or his goods any hurt by Witch- 
craft ; 

The Arraignement and Triall 

craft; did couenant with the faid Anne, that if fhe would 
hurt neither of them, fhe fhould yearely haue one Agh- 
en-dole of meale; which meale was yearely paid, vntill 
the yeare which her father died in, which was about e- 
leuen yeares fmce: Her father vpon his then- death-bed, 
taking it that the faid Anne Whittle, alias Chattox, did be- 
witch him to death, becaufe the faid meale was not paid 
the laft yeare. 

And fhe alfo faith, That about two yeares agone, this 
Examinate being in the houfe of Anthony Nutter of 
Pendle aforefaid, and being then in company with Anne 
Nutter, daughter of the faid Anthony : the faid Anne 
Whittle, alias Chattox, came into the faid Anthony Nutters 
houfe, and feeing this Examinate, and the faid Anne 
Nutter laughing, and faying, that they laughed at her the 
faid Chattox : well faid then (fayes Anne Chattox) I will 
be meet with the one of you. And vpon the next day 
after, fhe the faid Anne Nutter fell ficke, aud within three 
weekes after died. And further, this Examinate faith, 
That about two yeares agoe, fhe, this Examinate, hath 
heard, That the faid Anne Whittle, alias Chattox, was 
fufpected for bewitching the drinke of Iohn Moore of 
Higham Gentleman: and not long after, fhee this Exa- 
minate heard the faid Chattox fay, that fhe would meet 
with the faid Iohn Moore, or his. Whereupon a child of 
the faid Iohn Moores, called Iohn, fell fick, and languifhed 
about halfe a yeare, and then died : during which lan- 
guifhing, this Examinate faw the faid Chattox fitting in 
her owne garden, and a picture of Clay like vnto a child 
in her Apron; which this Examinate efpying, the faid 
Anne Chattox would haue hidde with her Apron: and 
this Examinate declaring the fame to her mother, her 


of Witches at Lancafter. 

mother thought it was the picture of the faid Iohn 
Moores childe. 

And fhe this Examinate further faith, That about 
fixe or feuen yeares agoe, the faid Chattow did fall out 
with one Hugh Moore of Pendle, as aforefaid, about cer- 
taine cattell of the faid Moores, which the faid Moore 
did charge the faid Chattow to haue bewitched : for which 
the faid Chattow did curfe and worry the faid Moore, and 
faid flie would be Reuenged of the faid Moore : where- 
upon the faid Moore prefently fell ficke, and languifhed 
about halfe a yeare, and then died. Which Moore vpon 
his death-bed faid, that the faid Chattow had bewitched 
him to death. And fhe further faith, That about fixe 
yeares agoe, a daughter of the faid Anne Chattow, called 
Elizabeth, hauing been at the houfe of Iohn Nutter of the 
Bull-hole, to begge or get a difh full of milke, which fhe 
had, and brought to her mother, who was about a fields 
breadth of the faid Nutters houfe, which her faid mo- 
ther Anne Chattow tooke and put into a Kan, and did 
charne the fame with two ftickes acroffe in the fame 
field : whereupon the faid Iohn Nutters fonne came vnto 
her, the faid Chattow, and mifliking her doings, put the 
faid Kan and milke ouer with his foot; and the morning 
next after, a Cow of the faid Iohn Nutters fell ficke, and 
fo languifhed three or foure dayes, and then died. 

In the end being openly charged with all this in open 
Court ; with weeping teares fhe humbly acknowled- 
ged them to be true, and cried out vnto God for Mercy 
and forgiuenefTe of her fmnes, and humbly prayed my 
Lord to be mercifull vnto Anne Redfearne her daughter, 
of whofe life and condition you fhall heare more vpon 

F her 


The Arraignement and Triall 

her Arraignement and Triall: whereupon fhee being 

taken away, Elizabeth Deuice comes now to receiue 

her Triall being the next in order, of whom 

you fliall heare at 




and Triall of Elizabeth De- 
vice (Daughter of Elizabeth Sothernes, 
alias Old Dembdike) late wife of Io. Device, 
of the Forrejl of Pendle, in the Countie of Lancajier, wi- 
dow, for Witchcraft; Vpon Tuefday the eighteenth of Au- 
guji, at the Afsifes and generall Gaole-Deliuerie holden at 

Sir Edward Bromley Knight, one of his Ma- 
iejiies Iujiices of Afsife at Lancajier. 

Elizabeth Deuice. 

Barbarous and inhumane Monfter, be- 
yond example ; fo farre from fenfible vn- 
derftanding of thy owne miferie, as to 
bring thy owne naturall children into 
mifchiefe and bondage ; and thy felfe to 
be a witneffe vpon the Gallowes, to fee thy owne chil- 
dren, by thy deuillifh inftructions hatcht vp in Villanie 
and Witchcraft, to fuffer with thee, euen in the begin- 
ning of their time, a fhamefull and vntimely Death. 
Too much (fo it be true) cannot be faid or written of 
her. Such was her life and condition : that euen at the 
Barre, when fhee came to receiue her Triall (where the 

F 2 leaft 

The Arraignement and Triall 

leafl fparke of Grace or modeftie would haue procured 
fauour, or moued pitie) lhe was not able to containe her 
felfe within the limits of any order or gouernment : but 
exclaiming, in very outragious manner crying out a- 
gainft her owne children, and fuch as came to profecute 
Indictments & Euidence for the Kings Maieftie againft 
her, for the death of their Children, Friends, and Kins- 
folkes, whome cruelly and bloudily, by her Enchaunt- 
ments, Charmes, and Sorceries fhe had murthered and 
cut off; fparing no man with fearefull execrable curfes 
and banning : Such in generall was the common opini- 
on of the Countrey where fhe dwelt, in the Forreft of 
Pendle (a place fit for people of fuch condition) that no 
man neere her, neither his wife, children, goods, or cat- 
tell fhould be fecure or free from danger. 

This Elizabeth Deuice was the daughter of Elizabeth 
Sothernes, old Dembdike, a malicious, wicked, and dange- 
rous Witch for fiftie yeares, as appeareth by Record: 
and how much longer, the Deuill and fhee knew beft 
with whome fhee made her couenant. 

It is very certaine, that amongft all thefe Witches 
there was not a more dangerous and deuillifh Witch to 
execute mifchiefe, hauing old Dembdike, her mother, to 
aflift her; lames Deuice and Alizon Deuice, her owne na- 
turall children, all prouided with Spirits, vpon any occa- 
fion of offence readie to affift her. 

Vpon her Examination, although Mafler Now el was 
very circumfpect, and exceeding carefull in dealing 
with her, yet fhe would confeffe nothing, vntill it plea- 
fed God to raife vp a yong maid, Iennet Deuice, her owne 
daughter, about the age of nine yeares (a witneffe vn- 
expected) to difcouer all their Practifes, Meetings, Con- 


of Witches at Lancajter. 

fultations, Murthers, Charmes, and Villanies: fuch, and 
in fuch fort, as I may iuftly fay of them, as a reuerend 
and learned Iudge of this Kingdome fpeaketh of the 
greateft Treafon that euer was in this Kingdome, Quis 
hcec posteris Jic narrare poterit, vt facta nonficta ejfe vide- 
anturf That when thefe things fhall be related to Po- 
fteritie, they will be reputed matters fained, not done. 

And then knowing, that both Iennet Deuice, her 
daughter, lames Deuice, her fonne, and Alizon Deuice, with 
others, had accufed her and layed open all things, in their 
Examinations taken before Mailer Nowel, and although 
fhe were their owne naturall mother, yet they did not 
fpare to accufe her of euery particular fact, which in her 
time fhe had committed, to their knowledge ; fhe made 
a very liberall and voluntarie Confeffion, as hereafter 
fhall be giuen in euidence againft her, vpon her Arraign- 
ment and Triall. 

This Elizabeth Deuice being at libertie, after Old 
Dembdike her mother, Alizon Deuice, her daughter, and 
old Chattocks were committed to the Caftle of Lanca- 
fler for Witchcraft ; laboured not a little to procure 
a folemne meeting at Malkyn-Tower of the Graund 
Witches of the Counties of Lancafter and Yorke, being 
yet vnfufpected and vntaken, to confult of fome fpeedie 
courfe for the deliuerance of their friends, the Witches 
at Lancafter, and for the putting in execution of fome 
other deuillifh practifes of Murther and Mifchiefe : as 
vpon the Arraignement and Triall of lames Deuice, her 
fonne, fhall hereafter in euery particular point appeare 
at large againft her. 

F3 The 

The Arraignement and Triall 

The firft Indictment. 

THis Elizabeth Deuice, late the wife of John Deuice, of 
the Forreft of Pendle in the Countie of Lancafter 
Widdow, being indicted, for that fhee fellonioufly had 
practized, vfed, and exercifed diuers wicked and deuil- 
lifh Arts, called Witch-crafts, Inchantments, Charmes, and 
Sorceries, in, and vpon one John Robin/on, alias Swyer: and 
by force of the fame fellonioufly, the faid John Robin/on, 
alias Swyer, had killed. Contra pacem, tyc. being at the 
Barre was arraigned. 

2. Indictment. 

The faid Elizabeth Deuice was the fecond time indi- 
cted in the fame manner and forme, for the death of 
lames Robin/on, by Witch-craft. Contra pacem, fyc. 

3 . Indictment. 

The faid Elizabeth Deuice, was the third time with 
others, viz. Alice Nutter, and Elizabeth Sothernes, alias 
Old-Dembdike, her Grand-mother, Indicted in the fame 
manner and forme, for the death of Henrie Mytton. 
Contra "pacem, fyc. 

To thefe three feuerall Indictments vpon her Ar- 
raignement, fhee pleaded not guiltie; and for the tryall 
of her life, put her felfe vpon God and her Countrie. 

So as now the Gentlemen of the Iurie of life and 
death, ftand charged to finde, whether fhee bee guiltie 
of them, or any of them. 


of Witches at Lancafter. 

Whereupon there was openly read, and giuen in e- 
uidence againft her, for the Kings Majeftie, her owne 
voluntarie Confeflion and Examination, when fliee was 
apprehended, taken, and committed to the Caftle of 
Lancafter by M. Nowel, and M. Bannefter, two of his 
Maiefties Iuftices of Peace in the fame Countie. viz. 

The Examination and voluntarie Confef- 
Jion of Elizabeth Device, taken at the houfe of 
Iames Wilsey of the For reft of Pendle, in the Coun- 
tie of Lancafter, the feuen and twentieth day of Aprill : 
Anno Reg. Iacobi, Angl. fyc. decimo, £f Scotice xlv. 


Roger Nowel, and Nicholas Banne- 
ster, Ef quires', two of his Maiefties Iuftices of the Peace 
within the fame Countie. viz. 

The faid Elizabeth Deuice, Mother of the faid 
Iames, being examined, confeffeth and faith. 

THat at the third time her Spirit, the Spirit Ball, ap- 
peared to her in the fhape of a browne Dogge, at, or 
in her Mothers houfe in Pendle Forreft aforefaid: about 
foure yeares agoe the faid Spirit bidde this Examinate 
make a picture of Clay after the faid Iohn Robinfon, alias 
Swyer, which this Examinate did make accordingly at 
the Weft end of her faid Mothers houfe, and dryed the 
fame picture with the fire and crumbled all the fame pi- 
cture away within a weeke or thereabouts, and about a 


The Arraignement and Triall 

weeke after the Picture was crumbled or mulled away; 
the faid Robinfon dyed. 

The reafon wherefore fhee this Examinate did fo 
bewitch the faid Robinfon to death, was : for that the faid 
Robin Con had chidden and becalled this Examinate, for 
hauing a Baftard-child with one Seller. 

And this Examinate further faith and confeffeth, 
that fhee did bewitch the faid lames Robinfon to death, 
as in the faid Iennet Deuice her examination is confeffed. 

And further fhee faith, and confeffeth, that fhee with 
the wife of Richard Nutter, and this Examinates faid Mo- 
ther, ioyned altogether, and did bewitch the faid Henrie 
Mytton to death. 

The Examination and Euidence of Iennet 
Device, Daughter of the faid Elizabeth 
Device, late Wife of Iohn Device, of the 
Forrejt of Pendle, in the Countie of Lancqfter. 

Elizabeth Device her Mother, Prifoner at the 
Barre vpon her Arraignement and Triall. viz. 

THe faid Iennet Deuice, being a yong Maide, about the 
age of nine yeares, and commanded to ftand vp to 
giue euidence againft her Mother, Prifoner at the Barre : 
Her Mother, according to her accuftomed manner, out- 
ragioufly curfing, cryed out againft the child in fuch 
fearefull manner, as all the Court did not a little wonder 
at her, and fo amazed the child, as with weeping teares 


of Witches at Lancq/ier. 

fliee cryed out vnto my Lord the Iudge, and told him, 
fhee was not able to fpeake in the prefence of her Mo- 

This odious Witch was branded with a prepoflerous 
marke in Nature, euen from her birth, which was her 
left eye, Handing lower then the other; the one loo- 
king downe, the other looking vp, fo ftrangely defor- 
med, as the beft that were prefent in that Honorable af- 
fembly, and great Audience, did affirme, they had not 
often feene the like. 

No intreatie, promife of fauour, or other refpect, could 
put her to filence, thinking by this her outragious cur- 
fmg and threatning of the child, to inforce her to denie 
that which fhe had formerly confeffed againft her Mo- 
ther, before M. Nowel: Forfwearing and denying her 
owne voluntarie confeffion, which you haue heard, gi- 
uen in euidence againft her at large, and fo for want of 
further euidence to efcape that, which the Iuftice of the 
Law had prouided as a condigne punifhment for the in- 
nocent bloud fhee had fpilt, and her wicked and deuil- 
lifh courfe of life. 

In the end, when no meanes would ferue, his Lord- 
fhip commanded the Prifoner to be taken away, and the 
Maide to bee set vpon the Table in the prefence of the 
whole Court, who deliuered her euidence in that Ho- 
norable affembly, to the Gentlemen of the Iurie of life 
and death, as followeth. viz. 

Iennet Deuice, Daughter of Elizabeth Deuice, late Wife 
of Iohn Deuice, of the Forreft of Pendle aforefaid Wid- 
dow, confeffeth and faith, that her faid Mother is a 
Witch, and that this fhee knoweth to be true; for, that 

G fhee 

The Arraignement and Triall 

fhee had feene her Spirit fundrie times come vnto her 
faid Mother in her owne houfe, called Malking- Tower, 
in the likeneffe of a browne Dogge, which fhee called 
Ball; and at one time amongft others, the faid Ball did 
aske this Examinates Mother what fhe would haue him 
to doe: and this Examinates Mother anfwered, that fhe 
would haue the faid Ball to helpe her to kill John Robin- 
fon of Barley, alias Swyer : by helpe of which faid Ball, the 
faid Swyer was killed by witch-craft accordingly; and 
that this Examinates Mother hath continued a Witch 
for thefe three or foure yeares laft paft. And further, this 
Examinate confeffeth, that about a yeare after, this Exa- 
minates Mother called for the faid Ball, who appeared as 
aforefaid, asking this Examinates Mother what fhee 
would haue done, who faid, that fhee would haue him 
to kill lames Robinfon, alias Swyer, of Barlow aforefaid, 
Brother to the faid John: whereunto Ball anfwered, hee 
would doe it; and about three weekes after, the faid 
lames dyed. 

And this Examinate alfo faith, that one other time 
fhee was prefent, when her faid Mother did call for the 
Her Spi- faid Ball, who appeared in manner as aforefaid, and asked 
rit - this Examinates Mother what fhee would haue him to 
doe, whereunto this Examinates Mother then faid 
fhee would haue him to kill one Mitton of the 
Rough-Lee, whereupon the faid Ball 
faid, he would doe it, and fo va- 
nifhed away, and about 
three weekes after, the 
faid Mitton likewife 


of Witches at Lancqfter. 

The Examination of Iames Device, 
fonne of the faid Elizabeth Device: Taken the 
feuen and twentieth day of Aprill, Annoq; Reg. Re- 
gis I a c o b i Anglia?, &c. Decimo ac Scociae, xlv. 

Roger Now el and Nicholas Banester, 
Ef quires, two of his Maiejlies Iujlices of the Peace, within 
the faid Countie. viz. 

THe faid Iames Deuice being examined, faith, That he 
heard his Grand-mother fay, about a yeare agoe, 
That his mother called Elizabeth Deuice, and others, 
had killed one Henry Mitton of the Rough-Lee afore- 
faid, by Witchcraft. The reafon wherefore he was fo 
killed, was for that this Examinates faid Grand-mother 
Old Demdike, had asked the faid Mitton a penny ; and he 
denying her thereof, thereupon fhe procured his death, 
as aforefaid. 

And he, this Examinate alfo faith, That about three 
yeares agoe, this Examinate being in his Grand-mothers 
houfe, with his faid mother ; there came a thing in fhape 
of a browne dogge, which his mother called Ball, who 
fpake to this Examinates mother, in the fight and hea- 
ring of this Examinate, and bad her make a Picture of 
Clay like vnto Iohn Robinfon, alias Swyer, and drie it hard, 
and then crumble it by little and little; and as the faid 
Picture fhould crumble or mull away, fo fhould the faid 
To. Robinfon alias Swyer his body decay and weare away. 
And within two or three dayes after, the Picture fhall 
fo all be wafted, and mulled away ; fo then the faid Iohn 
Robinfon fhould die prefently. Vpon the agreement be- 

G 2 twixt 

The Arraignement and Triall 

twixt the faid dogge and this Examinates mother; the 
laid dogge fuddenly vanifhed out of this Examinates 
fight. And the next day, this Examinate faw his faid 
mother take Clay at the Weft end of her faid houfe, 
and make a Picture of it after the faid Robin/on, and 
brought into her houfe, and dried it fome two dayes : 
and about two dayes after the drying thereof, this Exa- 
minates faid mother fell on crumbling the faid Picture 
of Clay, euery day fome, for fome three weekes toge- 
ther; and within two dayes after all was crumbled or 
mulled away, the faid Iohn Robinfon died. 

Being demanded by the Court, what anfwere fhee 
could giue to the particular points of the Euidence a- 
gainft her, for the death of thefe feuerall perfons ; Impu- 
dently fhee denied them, crying out againft her chil- 
dren, and the reft of the Witneffes againft her. 

But becaufe I haue charged her to be the principall 
Agent, to procure a folemne meeting at Malking- Tower 
of the Grand-witches, to confult of fome fpeedy courfe 
for the deliuerance of her mother, Old Demdike, her 
daughter, and other Witches at Lancafter: the fpeedie 
Execution of Mafter Couell, who little fufpected or de- 
ferued any fuch practife or villany againft him: The 
blowing up of the Caftle, with diuers other wicked and 
diuellifh practifes and murthers; I fhall make it appa- 
rant vnto you, by the particular Examinations and Eui- 
dence of her owne children, fuch as were prefent at the 
time of their Confutation, together with her owne Ex- 
amination and Confeffion, amongft the Records of the 
Crowne at Lancafter, as hereafter folio weth. 


of Witches at Lancqfter. 

The voluntary Confefsion and Examina- 
tion of Elizabeth Device, taken at the houfe of 
Iames Wilsey, of the Forreji of Pendle, in the 
Countie of Lancqfter, the feuen and twentieth day of A- 
prill, Annoq: Reg. Regis Iacobi Anglise, &c. De- 
cimo, & Scotise Quadragefimo quinto. 

Roger Novvel and Nicholas Banister, 
Ef quires, two of his Maiejties Iujlices of the Peace with- 
in the fame Countie. viz. 

THe faid Elizabeth Deuice being further Examined, 
confeffeth that vpon Good-Friday laft, there dined 
at this Examinates houfe, called Malking-Tower, thofe 
which fhe hath faid are Witches, and doth verily think 
them to be Witches: and their names are thofe whom 
Iames Deuice hath formerly fpoken of to be there. And 
flie further faith, that there was alfo at her faid mothers 
houfe, at the day and time aforefaid, two women of 
Burneley Parifh, whofe names the wife of Richard Nut- 
ter doth know. And there was likewife there one Anne 
Crouckjhey of Marfden : And fhee alfo confeffeth, in all 
things touching the Chriftening of the Spirit, and the 
killing of Matter Lifter of Weftbie, as the faid Iames De- 
uice hath before confeffed; but denieth of any talke was 
amongft them the faid Witches, to her now remem- 
brance, at the faid meeting together, touching the kil- 
ling of the Gaoler, or the blowing vp of Lancafter Ca- 

G 3 The 

The Arraignement and Triall 

The Examination and Ruidence of I e n n e t 
Device, Daughter of the faid Elizabeth 
Device, late Wife of Iohn Device, of the 
Forreji of 'Pendle, in the Countie of Lancajier. 

Elizabeth Device, her Mother, Prifoner at the 
Barre, vpon her Arraignement and Triall, viz. 

THe faid Iennet Deuice faith, That vpon Good Friday 
laft there was about twentie perfons (whereof one- 
ly two were men, to this Examinates remembrance) at 
her faid Grandmothers houfe, called Malking-Tower 
aforefaid, about twelue of the clocke: all which per- 
fons this Examinates faid mother told her, were Wit- 
ches, and that they came to giue a name to Alizon De- 
uice Spirit, or Familiar, fitter to this Examinate, and now 
prifoner at Lancafter. And alfo this Examinate faith, 
That the perfons aforefaid had to their dinners Beefe, 
Bacon, and roafted Mutton; which Mutton (as this 
Examinates faid brother faid) was of a Wether of Chri- 
Jlopher Swyers of Barley : which Wether was brought in 
the night before into this Examinates mothers houfe 
by the faid lames Deuice, this Examinates faid brother: 
and in this Examinates fight killed and eaten, as afore- 
faid. And fhee further faith, That fhee knoweth the 
names of fixe of the faid Witches, viz. the wife of Hugh 
Hargraues vnder Pendle, Chrijlopher Howgate of Pendle, 
vnckle to this Examinate, and Elizabeth his wife, and 
Dicke Miles his wife of the Rough-Lee; Chri/iopher 
laches of Thorny-holme, and his wife: and the names 


of Witches at Lancajler. 

of the refidue fliee this Examinate doth not know, fa- 
uing that this Examinates mother and brother were 
both there. And laftly, fhe this Examinate confeffeth 
and faith, That her mother hath taught her two pray- 
ers : the one to cure the bewitched, and the other to get 
drinke ; both which particularly appeare. 

The Examination and Ruidence of Iames 
Device, 1 fonne of the faid Elizabeth Device, 
late wife of Iohn Device, of the Forreji of 
Pendle, in the Countie of Lancajler. 

Elizabeth Device, his Mother, prifoner at the 
Barre, vpon her Arraignement and Triall, viz. 

THe faid lames Deuice faith, That on Good-Friday 
laft, about twelue of the clocke in the day time, 
there dined in this Examinates faid mothers houfe, at 
Malking-Tower, a number of perfons, whereof three 
were men, with this Examinate, and the reft women; 
and that they met there for three caufes following (as 
this Examinates faid mother told this Examinate) The 
fir ft was, for the naming of the Spirit, which Alizon 
Deuice, now prifoner at Lancafter, had: But did not 
name him, becaufe fhee was not there. The fecond 
was, for the deliuerie of his faid Grandmother, olde 
Dembdike; this Examinates faid fifter Allizon; the faid 


The Arraignement and Triall 

Anne Chattox, and her daughter Red/erne; killing the 
Gaoler at Lancafter; and before the next Affifes to 
blow vp the Caftle there: and to that end the afore- 
faid prifoners might by that time make an efcape, and 
get away. All which this Examinate then heard them 
conferre of. 

And he alfo fayth, That the names of the faid Wit- 
ches as were on Good-Friday at this Examinates faid 
Grandmothers houfe, and now this Examinates owne 
mothers, for fo many of them as hee did know, were 
thefe, viz. The wife of Hugh Hargreiues of Burley; 
the wife of Chrijlopher Bulcock, of the MolTe end, and 
John her fonne; the mother of Myles Nutter \ Eliza- 
beth, the wife of Chrijlopher Hargreiues, of Thurni- 
holme; Chrijlopher Howgate, and Elizabeth, his wife; 
Alice Graye of Coulne, and one Mould-heeles wife, of 
the fame : and this Examinate, and his Mother. 
And this Examinate further fayth, That all the 
Witches went out of the faid Houfe in their owne 
fhapes and likeneffes. And they all, by that they 
were forth of the dores, gotten on Horfebacke, like 
vnto Foales, fome of one colour, fome of another; 
and Prejlons wife was the laft : and when fhee got 
on Horfebacke, they all prefently vanifhed out of this 
Examinates fight. And before their faid parting a- 
itedat way, they all appointed to meete at the faid Prestons 
e the laft wiues houfe that day twelue-moneths ; at which time 
the faid Prestons wife promifed to make them a great 
Feast. And if they had occafion to meete in the meane 
time, then fhould warning be giuen, that they all fhould 
meete vpon Romleyes Moore. 


of Witches at Lancq/ier. 

And there they parted, with refolution to execute 

their deuillifh and bloudie practifes, for the deliue- 

rance of their friends, vntill they came to meete here, 

where their power and ftrength was gone. And now 

finding her Meanes was gone, fhee cried out for Mer- 

cie. Whereupon fhee being taken away, the next 

in order was her fonne lames Deuice, whom 

fhee and her Mother, old Demb- 

dike, brought to act his part 

in this wofull Tra- 



The Arraignement and Triall 


and Triall of I a M E s Device, 

Sonne 0/ Elizabeth Device, o/^e Forrest of 
Pendle, within the Countie of Lancajier aforefaid, Labo- 
rer \ for Witchcraft; Vpon Tuefday the eighteenth of Au- 
guji, at the Afsifes and generall Gaole-Deliuerie holden at 

Sir Edward Bromley Knight, one of his Ma- 
iejlies Iujlices of Afsife at Lancajier. 

James Deuice. 

His wicked and miferable Wretch, whe- 
ther by practife, or meanes, to bring 
himfelfe to some vntimely death, and 
thereby to auoide his Tryall by his 
Countrey , and iuft iudgement of the 
Law; or afhamed to bee openly charged with fo ma- 
ny deuillifh practifes, and fo much innocent bloud 
as hee had fpilt; or by reafon of his Imprifonment 
fo long time before his Tryall (which was with more 
fauour, commiferation, and reliefe then hee defer- 
ued) I know not: But being brought forth to the 


of Witches at Lancqjler. 

Barre, to receiue his Triall before this worthie Iudge, 
and fo Honourable and Worfhipfull an Affembly of 
Iuflices for this feruice, was fo infenfible, weake, 
and vnable in all thinges, as he could neither fpeake, 
heare, or stand, but was holden vp when hee was 
brought to the place of his Arraignement, to receiue 
his triall. 

This lames Deuice of the Forreft of Pendle, being 
brought to the Barre, was there according to the forme, 
order, and courfe, Indicted and Arraigned ; for that hee 
Fellonioufly had practifed, vfed, and exercifed diuers 
wicked and deuillifh Arts, called Witch-crafts, Inchaunt- 
ments, Charmes, and Sorceries, in, and vpon one Anne 
Towneley , wife of Henrie Towneley of the Carre, in the 
Countie of Lancafter Gentleman, and her by force of 
the fame, fellonioufly had killed. Contra pacem, fyc. 

The faid lames Deuice was the fecond time Indicted 
and Arraigned in the fame manner and forme, for the 
death of John Duckworth, by witch-craft. Contra pa- 
cem, fyc. 

To thefe two feuerall Indictments vpon his Arraign- 
ment, he pleaded not guiltie, and for the triall of his life 
put himfelfe vpon God and his Countrie. 

So as now the Gentlemen of the Iurie of life and death 
Hand charged to finde, whether he be guiltie of these, or 
either of them. 

Whereupon Mafter Nowel humbly prayed Mafter 
Towneley might be called, who attended to profecute 
and giue euidence againft him for the King's Majeftie, 
and that the particular Examinations taken before him 
and others, might be openly publifhed & read in Court, 
in the hearing of the Prifoner. 

H2 But 

The Arraignement and Triall 

But becaufe it were infinite to bring him to his parti- 
cular Triall for euery offence, which hee hath commit- 
ted in his time, and euery practice wherein he hath had 
his hand: I shall proceede in order with the Euidence 
remayning vpon Record againft him, amongft the Re- 
cords of the Crowne; both how, and in what fort hee 
came to be a witch: and fhew you what apparant proofe 
there is to charge him with the death of thefe two feue- 
rall perfons, for the which hee now ftandeth vpon his 
triall for al the reft of his deuillifh practifes, incantantions, 
murders, charmes, forceries, meetings to confult with 
Witches, to execute mifchiefe (take them as they are a- 
gainft him vpon Record:) Enough, I doubt not. For 
thefe with the courfe of his life will serue his turne to 
deliuer you from the danger of him that neuer tooke 
felicitie in any things, but in reuenge, bloud, & mischiefe 
with crying out vnto God for vengeance ; which hath 
now at the length brought him to the place where hee 
ftandes to receiue his Triall with more honor, fauour, 

and refpect , then fuch a Monfter in Nature doth de- 

ferue ; And I doubt not, but in due time by the 

Iuftice of the Law , to an vntimely 

and fhamefull 



of Witches at Lancajler. 

The Examination 0/ Iames Device, 
fonne of Elizabeth Device, of the Forreji of 
Pendle, in the Countie of Lancaster, Labourer. Taken the 
feuen and twentieth day of Aprill, Annoq; Reg. Regis 
I ac obi, Anglise, fyc. x°. fy Scotice Quadragejimo quinto. 

Roger Nowel, and Nicholas Banne- 
s t e r, Ef quires : two of his Maiejiies Iujiices of Peace 
within the f aid Countie. 

HE faith, that vpon Sheare Thurfday was two 
yeares, his Grand-Mother Elizabeth Sothernes, alias 
Dembdike, did bid him this Examinate goe to the Church 
to receiue the Communion (the next day after being 
Good Friday) and then not to eate the Bread the Mini- 
fter gaue him, but to bring it and deliuer it to fuch a 
thing as fhould meet him in his way homewards: Not- 
withftanding her perfwafions, this Examinate did eate 
the Bread: and fo in his comming homeward fome for- 
tie roodes off the faid Church, there met him a thing in 
the fhape of a Hare, who fpoke vnto this Examinate, 
and asked him whether hee had brought the Bread that 
his Grand-mother had bidden him, or no? whereupon 
this Examinate anfwered, hee had not: and thereupon 
the faid thing threatned to pull this Examinate in pee- 
ces, and fo this Examinate thereupon marked himselfe 
to God, and fo the faid thing vanifhed out of this Exa- 
minates fight. And within fome foure daies after that, 
there appeared in this Examinates fight, hard by the 
new Church in Pendle , a thing like vnto a browne 

H 3 Dogge, 

The Arraignement and Triall 

Dogge, who asked this Examinate to giue him his Soule, 
and he fhould be reuenged of any whom hee would: 
whereunto this Examinate anfwered, that his Soule 
was not his to giue, but was his Sauiour Iesus Chrijis, but 
as much as was in him this Examinate to giue, he was 
contented he fhould haue it. 

And within two or three daies after, this Examinate 
went to the Carre-Hall, and vpon fome fpeeches be- 
twixt Miflris Towneley and this Examinate ; Shee char- 
ging this Examinate and his faid mother, to haue ftolne 
fome Turues of hers, badde him packe the doores: 
and withall as he went forth of the doore, the faid Mi- 
flris Towneley gaue him a knock betweene the fhoulders: 
and about a day or two after that, there appeared vnto 
this Examinate in his way, a thing like vnto a black dog, 
who put this Examinate in minde of the faid Miflris 
Towneley es falling out with him this Examinate; 
who bad this Examinate make a Picture of Clay, like 
vnto the faid Miflris Towneley, and that this Examinate 
with the helpe of his Spirit (who then euer after bidde 
this Examinate to call it Dandy) would kill or deflroy 
the faid Miflris Towneley : and fo the faid dogge vanifhed 
out of this Examinates fight. And the next morning af- 
ter, this Examinate tooke Clay, and made a Picture of 
the faid Miflris Towneley, and dried it the fame night by 
the fire : and within a day after , hee , this Exami- 
nate began to crumble the faid Picture, euery day fome, 
for the fpace of a weeke : and within two daies after all 
was crumbled away ; the faid Miflris Towneley died. 

And hee further faith, That in Lent lafl one Iohn 
Duckworth of the Lawnde, promifed this Examinate an 
old fhirt: and within a fortnight after, this Examinate 


of Witches at Lancajler. 

went to the faid Duckworthes houfe, and demanded the 
laid old fhirt: but the faid Duckworth denied him there- 
of. And going out of the faid houfe, the faid Spirit Dan- 
dy appeared vnto this Examinate, and faid, Thou didft 
touch the faid Duckworth ; whereunto this Examinate 
anfwered, he did not touch him: yes (faid the Spirit a- 
gaine) thou didft touch him, and therfore I haue power 
of him : whereupon this Examinate ioyned with the 
faid Spirit, and then wifhed the faid Spirit to kill the 
faid Duckworth-, and within one weeke, then next after, 
Duckworth died. 

This voluntary Confeffion and Examination of his 
owne, containing in it selfe matter fufficient in Law to 
charge him, and to proue his offences, contained in the 
two feuerall Indictments, was fufficient to fatisfie the 
Gentlemen of the Iurie of Life and Death, that he is 
guiltie of them, and either of them : yet my Lord Brom- 
ley commanded, for their better fatisfaction, that the 
Witneffes prefent in Court againft any of the Prifoners, 
fliould be examined openly, viua voce, that the Prifoner 
might both heare and anfwere to euery particular point 
of their Euidence ; notwithftanding any of their Exa- 
minations taken before any of his Maiefties Iuftices of 
Peace within the faid Countie. 

Herein do but obferue the wonderfull work of God; 
to raife vp a young Infant, the very fifter of the Prifoner, 
lennet Deuice, to difcouer, iuftifie and proue thefe things 
againft him, at the time of his Arraignement and Triall, 
as hereafter followeth. viz. 



The Arraignement and Triall 

The Examination and Euidence of I e n- 
net Device daughter of Elizabeth Device, 
late wife o/Iohn Device of the Forreft of Pen- 
die, in the Countie of Lancqfter. 

Iames Device, Prifoner at the Barre, vpon his Ar- 
raignement and Triall. viz. 

Eing examined in open Court, fhe faith, That her 
brother Iames Deuice, the Prifoner at the Barre, hath 
beene a Witch for the fpace of three yeares: about the 
beginning of which time, there appeared vnto him, in 
this Examinates mothers houfe, a Black -Dogge, which 
Dandy, her faid brother called Dandy. And further, this Exa- 
minate confeffeth, & faith: That her faid brother about 
a twelue month fmce, in the prefence of this Examinate, 
and in the houfe aforefaid, called for the faid Dandy, 
who thereupon appeared : asking this Examinates bro- 
ther what he would haue him to doe. This Examinates 
brother then faid, he would haue him to helpe him to 
kill old Miftris Towneley of the Carre: whereunto the 
faid Dandy anfwered, and faid, That her faid brother 
fhould haue his beft helpe for the doing of the fame ; and 
that her faid brother, and the faid Dandy, did both in 
this Examinates hearing, fay, they would make away 
the faid Miftris Towneley. And about a weeke after, this 
Examinate comming to the Carre-Hall, faw the faid 
Miftris Towneley in the Kitchin there, nothing well : 
whereupon it came into this Examinates minde, that 
her faid brother, by the help of Dandy, had brought the 
faid Miftris Towneley into the ftate fhe then was in. 


of Witches at Lancafter. 

Which Examinat, although fhe were but very yong, 
yet it was wonderfull to the Court, in fo great a Prefence 
and Audience, with what modeftie, gouernement, and 
vnderftanding, fliee deliuered this Euidence againft the 
Prifoner at the Barre, being her owne naturall brother, 
which he himfelfe could not deny, but there acknow- 
ledged in euery particular to be iuft and true. 

But behold a little further, for here this bloudy Mon- 
fter did not flay his hands: for befides his wicked and 
diuellifh Spels, practifes, meetings to confult of murder 
and mifchiefe, which (by Gods grace) hereafter fhall 
follow in order againft him ; there is yet more bloud to 
be laid vnto his charge. For although he were but yong, 
and in the beginning of his Time, yet was he carefull to 
obferue his Inftructions from Old Demdike his Grand- 
mother, and Elizabeth Deuice his mother, in fo much that 
no time fhould paffe fince his firft entrance into that 
damnable Arte and exercife of Witchcrafts, Inchant- 
ments, Charmes and Sorceries, without mischiefe or 
murder. Neither fhould any man vpon the leaft occafi- 
on of offence giuen vnto him, efcape his hands, without 
fome danger. For thefe particulars were no fooner giuen 
in Euidence againft him, when he was againe Indicted 
and Arraigned for the murder of thefe two. viz. 

lames Deuice of the Forreft of Pendle aforefaid, in the 
Countie of Lancafter, Labourer, the third time Indi- 
cted and Arraigned for the death of John Hargraues of 
Gould-fhey-booth , in the Countie of Lancafter, by 
Witchcraft, as aforefaid. Contra fyc. 

To this Inditement vpon his Arraignement he plea- 
ded thereunto not guiltie: and for his Triall put him- 
felfe vpon God and his Countrey, &c. 

I lames 

The Arraignement and Triall 

lames Deuice of the Forreft of Pendle aforefaid, in the 
County of Lancafter, Labourer, the fourth time Indi- 
cted and Arraigned for the death of Blaze Hargreues of 
Higham, in the Countie of Lancafter, by Witchcraft, as 
aforefaid. Contra Pacem, &c. 

To this Indictment vpon his Arraignement, he plea- 
ded thereunto not guiltie; and for the Triall of his life, 
put himfelfe vpon God and the Countrey. &c. 

Hereupon Iennet Deuice produced, fworne and exa- 
mined, as a witneffe on his Maiefties behalfe, againft the 
faid lames Deuice, was examined in open Court, as fol- 
loweth. viz. 

The Examination and Euidence (^ Ien- 
net Device aforefaid. 

Iames Device, her brother, Prifoner at the Barre, 
vpon his Arraignement and Triall. viz. 

BEing fworne aud examined in open Court, iTie faith, 
That her brother lames Deuice hath beene a Witch 
for the fpace of three yeares : about the beginning of 
which time, there appeared vnto him, in this Exami- 
nates mothers houfe, a Blacke-Dogge, which her faid 
brother called Dandy, which Dandy did aske her faid bro- 
ther what he would haue him to doe, whereunto he an- 
fwered, hee would haue him to kill John Hargreiues, of 
Gold-fhey-booth : whereunto Dandy anfwered that he 
would doe it : fmce which time the faid Iohn is dead. 


of Witches at Lancqfter. 

And at another time this Examinate confeffeth and 
faith, That her faid brother did call the faid Dandy: 
who thereupon appeared in the faid houfe , asking 
this Examinates brother what hee would haue him 
to doe : whereupon this Examinates faid brother 
faid, he would haue him to kill Blaze Hargreiues ol 
Higham : whereupon Dandy anfwered, hee ftiould 
haue his beft helpe, and fo vanifhed away: and fliee 
faith, that fmce that time the faid Hargreiues is dead ; 
but how long after, this Examinate doth not now re- 

All which things, when he heard his fifter vpon her 
Oath affirme, knowing them in his confcience to bee 
iuft and true, flenderly denyed them, and thereupon 

To this Examination were diuerfe witneffes exami- 
ned in open Court viua voce, concerning the death of 
the parties, in fuch manner and forme, and at fuch time 
as the faid Iennet Deuice in her Euidence hath formerly 
declared to the Court. 

Which is all, and I doubt not but matter fuffi- 
cient in Law to charge him with, for the 
death of thefe parties. 

For the proofe of his Practifes, Charmes, Meetings at 
Malking-Tower, to confult with Witches to execute 
mifchiefe, Matter Nowel humbly prayed, his owne 
Examination, taken and certified, might openly be read ; 
and the reft in order, as they remaine vpon Record a- 
mongft the Records of the Crowne at Lancafter : as 
hereafter followeth, viz. 

1 2 The 

The Arraignement and Trial! 

The Examination of Iames Device, 
Sonne (^Elizabeth Device, of the For- 
rejl of Pendle : Taken the feuen and twentieth day of 
Aprill aforefaid, 

Roger Now el and Nicholas Banester 
Efquires, two of his Maiesties Iujiices of Peace within 
the f aid Countie, viz. 

ANd being examined, he further faith, That vpon 
Sheare-Thurfday laft, in the euening, he this Exa- 
nimate ftole a Wether from Iohn Robinfon of Barley, 
and brought it to his Grand-mothers houfe, old Demb- 
dike, and there killed it: and that vpon the day follow- 
ing, being Good-Friday, about twelue of the clocke in 
the day time, there dined in this Examinates mothers 
houfe a number of perfons, whereof three were men, 
with this Examinate, and the reft women; and that they 
met there for three Caufes following, as this Exami- 
nates faid Mother told this Examinate. 

1 The firft was, for the naming of the Spirit which 
Alizon Deuice, now prifoner at Lancafter, had, but did 
not name him, becaufe fhe was not there. 

2 The fecond Caufe was, for the deliuerie of his faid 
Grand-mother; this Examinates faid filter Alizon ; the 
faid Anne Chattox, and her daughter Medferne; killing 
the Gaoler at Lancafter; and before the next Aflifes to 
blow vp the Caftle there, to the end the aforefaid per- 
fons might by that meanes make an efcape & get away; 
all which this Examinate then heard them conferre of. 

3 And the third Caufe was, for that there was a wo- 


of Witches at Lancqfler. 

man dwelling in Gisborne Parifh, who came into this 
Examinates faid Grandmothers honfe, who there came 
and craued afliftance of the reft of them that were then 
there, for the killing of Mafter Lifter of Weftby, becaufe 
(as fhee then faid) he had borne malice vnto her, and 
had thought to haue put her away at the laft Afllfes at 
Yorke, but could not: and this Examinate heard the faid 
woman fay, That her power was not ftrong ynough to 
doe it her felfe, being now leffe then before time it had 

And alfo, that the faid Iennet Prejion had a Spirit with 
her like vnto a white Foale, with a blacke fpot in the for- 

And he alfo faith, That the names of the faid Witches 
as were on Good-Friday at this Examinates faid Grand- 
mothers houfe, & now this Examinates owne mothers, 
for fo many of them as he did know, were thefe, viz, the 
wife of Hugh Hargreiues of Barley ; the wife of Chriftopher 
Bulcock of the MofTe end, and Iohn her fonne ; the mother 
of Myles Nutter r; Elizabeth, the wife of Chriftopher Har- 
greiues, of Thurniholme; Chriftopher Howgate, and Eli- 
zabeth, his wife; Alice Graye of Coulne, and one Mould- 
heeles wife, of the fame: and this Examinate, and his 
Mother. And this Examinate further faith, That all the 
faid Witches went out of the faid Houfe in their owne 
fhapes and likeneffes. And they all, by that they were 
forth of the dores, were gotten on Horfebacke, like 
vnto Foales, fome of one colour, fome of another; 
and Prejlons wife was the laft : and when fhee got 
on Horfebacke, they all prefently vanifhed out of this 
Examinates fight. And before their faid parting a- 
way, they all appointed to meete at the faid Prestons 

I 3 wiues 

The Arraignement and Triall 

wiues houfe that day twelue-moneths ; at which time 
the faid Prestons wife promifed to make them a great 
Feast. And if they had occafion to meete in the meane 
time, then fhould warning be giuen, that they all fhould 
meete vpon Romleyes Moore. 

The Examination and Euidence of I e n- 
net Device. 

Iames Device her faid Brother \ Prifoner at the 
Barre, vpon his Arraignement and Triall: Taken before 
Roger Nowel, and Nicholas Banne- 
ster, Ef quires: two of his Maiejlies Iujlices of Peace 
within the faid Countie, viz. 

SHee faith, that vpon Good-Friday laft there was a- 
bout twentie perfons, whereof only two were men, 
to this Examinates remembrance, at her faid Grand- 
mothers houfe, called Malking-Tower aforefaid, about 
twelue of the clock : all which perfons this Examinates 
faid Mother told her were Witches, and that they came 
to giue a name to Alizon Deuice Spirit or Familiar, Sifter 
to this Examinate, and now Prifoner, in the Caftle of 
Lancafter: And alfo this Examinate faith, that the per- 
fons aforefaid had to their Dinners, Beefe, Bacon, and 
rofted Mutton, which Mutton, as this Examinates faid 
brother faid, was of a Weather of Robinfons of Barley : 
which Weather was brought in the night before into 
this Examinates mothers houfe, by the faid Iames Deuice 


of Witches at Lancqfter. 

this Examinates faid brother, and in this Examinates 
fight killed, and eaten, as aforeiaid: And fhee further 
faith, that fhee knoweth the names of fixe of the faid 
Witches, viz, the wife of the faid Hugh Hargreiues, vn- 
der Pendle : Chrijlopher Howget, of Pendle, Vncle to this 
Examinate : and Dick Miles wife, of the Rough-Lee : 
Chrijlopher lacks, of Thorny-holme, and his Wife: and 
the names of the refidue fhee this Examinate doth not 
know, fauing that this Examinates Mother and Brother 
were both there. 

The Examination of Elizabeth 
Device, Mother of the faid Iames Device, of 
the Forrest of Pendle, taken the feuen and twentieth day of 
Aprill aforefaid. 

Roger Nowel, and Nicholas Banne- 
ster, Esquires ; as aforefaid. viz. 

BEing examined, the faid Elizabeth faith and confef- 
feth, that vpon Good-Friday laft there dined at this 
Examinates houfe, thofe which fhe hath faid to be Wit- 
ches, and doth verily thinke them to bee Witches, and 
their names are thofe, whom Iames Deuice hath former- 
ly fpoken of to be there. 

And fhee alfo confeffeth in all things touching the 
Chriflning of her Spirit, and the killing of Mafter Lister 
of Weftby, as the faid Iames Deuice confeffeth. But de- 
nieth that any talke was amongft the the faid Witches, 
to her now remembrance, at the faid meeting together, 


The Arraignenient and Triall 

touching the killing of the Gaoler at Lancafter ; blow- 
ing vp of the Caftle, thereby to deliuer old Dembdike her 
Mother ; Alizon Deuice her Daughter, and other Prifo- 
ners, committed to the faid Caftle for Witchcraft. 

After all thefe things opened, and deliuered in eui- 
dence againft him; Mafter Couil, who hath the 
cuftodie of the Gaole at Lancafter, hauing taken 
great paines with him during the time of his im- 
prifonment, to procure him to discouer his pra- 
ctizes, and fuch other Witches as he knew to bee 
dangerous: Humbly prayed the fauour of the 
Court that his voluntarie confeflion to M. Ander- 
ton, M. Sands the Major of Lancafter, M. Couel, and 
others, might openly bee publifhed and declared 
in Court. 

The voluntarie confefsion and declara- 
tion o/Iames Device, Prifoner in the Cajile at Lan- 

William Sands, Maior of Lancafter , Iames 
Anderton, Ef quire, one of his Maiesties Iuftices of 
Peace within the Countie of Lancafter : And Thomas 
C o v e l, Gentleman, one of his Maiefties Coroners in the 
fame Countie. viz. 

I Ames Deuice, Prifoner in the Caftle at Lancafter, faith, 
That his faid Spirit Dandie , being very earneft with 


of Witches at Lancqfier. 

him to giue him his foule, He anfwered, he would giue 
him that part thereof that was his owne to giue: and 
thereupon the faid Spirit faid, hee was aboue Christ 
Iesvs, and therefore hee muft abfolutely giue him his 
Soule: and that done, hee would giue him power to re- 
uenge himfelfe againft any whom he difliked. 

And he further faith, that the faid Spirit did appeare 
vnto him after fundrie times, in the likenefle of a Dogge, 
and at euery time moft earneftly perfwaded him to giue 
him his Soule abfolutely: who anfwered as before, that 
he would giue him his owne part and no further. And 
hee faith, that at the laft time that the faid Spirit was 
with him, which was the Tuefday next before his ap- 
prehenfion; when as hee could not preuaile with him to 
haue his Soule abfolutely granted vnto him, as afore- 
faicl ; the faid Spirit departed from him , then giuing a 
moft fearefull crie and yell , and withall caufed a great 
flafli of fire to fhew about him : which faid Spirit did 
neuer after trouble this Examinate. 

William Sands, 
James Anderton. 
Tho. Couel) Coroner. 

The faid Iennet Deuice, his Sifter, in the very end of 
her Examination againft the faid lames Deuice, confef- 
feth and faith, that her Mother taught her two Prayers : 
the one to get drinke, which was this. viz. 

Crucifixus hoc Jignum vitam 
TLternam. Amen. 

K And 

The Arraignement and Triall 

And fhee further faith, That her Brother lames De- 
uice, the Prifoner at the Barre, hath confeffed to her this 
Exammate, that he by this Prayer hath gotten drinke: 
and that within an houre after the faying the faid Pray- 
er, drinke hath come into the houfe after a very ftrange 
manner. And the other Prayer, the faid lames Deuice 
affirmed, would cure one bewitched, which fhee reci- 
ted as followeth. viz. 

A Charme. 

Vpon Good-Friday, I will f aft while I may 
Vntill I heave them knell 
Our Lords owne Bell, 
Lord in his meffe 
With his twelue Apqfiles good, 
What hath he in his hand 
Ligh in leath wand: 
What hath he in his other hand f 
Heauens doore key, 
Open, open Heauen doore keyes, 
Steck,Jleck hell doore. 
Let Crizum child 
Goe to it Mother mild, 

What is yonder that cqfts a light fo farrandly, 
Mine owne deare Sonne thafs naild to the Tree, 
He is naild fore by the heart and hand, 
And holy harne Panne, 
Well is that man 
That Fry day fpell can, 
His Childe to learne ; 
A Crojfe of Blew, and another of Red, 


of Witches at Lancqjler. 

As good Lord was to the Roode. 

Gabriel laid him downe tojleepe 

Vpon the ground of holy weepe : 

Good Lord came walking by, 

Sleep'Ji thou, watijl thou Gabriel, 

No Lord I amjled withjlicke and flake, 

That I can neither fleepe nor wake : 

Rife vp Gabriel and goe with me, 

Thejlick nor the Jlake Jhall neuer deere thee. 

Sweete Iefus our Lord, Amen. 

lames Deuice. 

What can be faid more of this painfull Steward, that 
was fo carefull to prouide Mutton againft this Feaft and 
folemne meeting at Malking* Tower, of this hellifh and 
diuellifh band of Witches, (the like whereof hath not 
been heard of) then hath beene openly publifhed and 
declared againft him at the Barre, vpon his Arraigne- 
ment and Triall : wherein it pleafed God to raife vp 
Witneffes beyond expectation to conuince him ; befides 
his owne particular Examinations, which being fhewed 
and read vnto him; he acknowledged to be iuft and true. 
And what I promifed to fet forth againft him, in the be- 
ginning of his Arraignment and Triall, I doubt not but 
therein I haue fatisfied your expectation at large, 
wherein I haue beene very fparing to charge him with 
any thing, but with fufficient matter of Record and E- 
uidence, able to fatisfie the confciences of the Gentle- 
men of the Iury of Life and Death ; to whofe good con- 
fideration I leaue him, with the perpetuall Badge and 
Brand of as dangerous and malicious a Witch, as euer 
liued in thefe parts of Lancafhire, of his time : and fpot- 

K 2 ted- 

The Arraignement and Triall 

ted with as much Innocent bloud, as euer any Witch of 
his yeares. 

After all thefe proceedings, by direction of his Lord- 
fhip, were their feuerall Examinations, fubfcribed by e- 
uery one of them in particular, (hewed vnto them at the 
time of their Triall, & acknowledged by the to be true, 
deliuered to the gentlemen of the Iury of Life & Death, 
for the better fatisfaction of their confciences: after due 
confideration of which faid feuerall examinations, con- 
feflions, and voluntary declarations, as well of them- 
felues as of their children, friends and confederates, The 
Gentlemen deliuered vp their Verdict againft the Prifo- 
ners, as followeth. viz. 

The Verdict of Life and Death. 

WHo found Anne Whittle, alias Chattoa,', Elizabeth 
Deuice, and lames Deuice, guiltie of the feuerall 
murthers by Witchcraft, contained in the Indictments 
againft them, and euery of them. 


of Witches at Lancqfler. 


The Arraignement and Triall of Ien- 


Sovth worth of Salmesbury, in the County of 
Lancqfier ; for Witchcraft vpon the bodie of Grace 
Sovverbvts, vpon Wednefday the nineteenth of 
Aucjuft : At the Afsifes and generall Gaole-deliucry, 
holden at Lancq/ier. 

Sir Edward Bromley Knight, one of his Ma- 
iejlies Iujiices of Afsize at Lancq/ier : as hereafter fol- 
loweth. viz. 

lennet Bierley. 
Ellen Bierley. 
lane Southworth. 

Hus haue we for a time left the Graund 
Witches of the Forreft of Pendle, to the 
good confideration of a verie fufficient 
Iury of worthy Gentlemen of their Cou- 
trey. We are now come to the famous 
Witches of Salmesbury, as the Countrey called them, 

K 3 who 

The Arraignement and Triall 

who by fuch a fubtill practife and confpiracie of a Se- 
minarie Priest, or, as the beft in this Honorable Affem- 
bly thinke, a Iesuite, whereof this Countie of Lancafter 
hath good ftore, who by reafon of the generall enter- 
tainement they find, and great maintenance they haue, 
refort hither, being farre from the Eye of Iuftice, and 
therefore, Procul a fulmine; are now brought to the 
Barre, to receiue their Triall, and fuch a young witneffe 
prepared and inftructed to giue Euidence againft them, 
that it muft be the Act of God that muft be the means 
to discouer their Practifes and Murthers, and by an in- 
fant : but how and in what fort Almightie God deli- 
uered them from the ftroake of Death, when the Axe 
was layd to the Tree, and made fruftrate the practife of 
this bloudie Butcher, it fhall appeare vnto you vpon 
their Arraignement and Triall , whereunto they are 
now come. 

Mailer Thomas Couel, who hath the charge of the pri- 
foners in the Caftle at Lancafter, was commaunded to 
bring forth the faid 

Jennet Bier ley , 

Ellen Bierley, 

Jane Southworth^ 
to the Barre to receiue their Triall. 



He faid Iennet Bierley, Ellen Bierley, and lane South- 
worth of Salmesbury, in the Countie of Lancafter, 


of Witches at Lancqfter. 

being indicted, for that they and euery of them felloni- 
oufly had practifed, exercifed, and vfed diuerfe deuillifh 
and wicked Arts, called Witchcrafts , Inchauntments, 
Charmes, and Sorceries, in and vpon one Grace Sowerbuts : 
fo that by meanes thereof her bodie wafted and confu- 
med, Contra formam Statuti fyc. Et Contra Pacem dicti 
Domini Regis Coronam 8$ dignitatem fyc. 

To this Indictment vpon their Arraignement, they 
pleaded Not-Guiltie; and for the Triall of their Hues put 
themfelues vpon God and their Countrey. 

Whereupon Mafter Sheriffe of the Countie of Lan- 
cafter, by direction of the Court, made returne of a very 
fufficient Iurie to paffe betweene the Kings Maieftie 
and them, vpon their Hues and deaths, with fuch others 
as follow in order. 

The Prifoners being now at the Barre vpon their 
Triall, Grace Sowerbutts, the daughter of Thomas Sower- 
butts, about the age of foureteene yeares, was produ- 
ced to giue Euidence for the Kings Maieftie against 
them: who ftanding vp, fhe was commaun- 
ded to point out the Prifoners, which 
fhee did, and faid as fol- 
loweth, viz 


The Arraignement and Trial! 

The Examination and Ruidence of 
Grace Sovverbvtts, daughter of Thomas 
Sovverbvtts, of Salmesbury , in the Countie of 
Lancqfier Husband-man, vpon her Oath, 

Iennet Bierley, Ellen Bierley, and 
Iane Sovth worth, prij oners at the Barre, vpon 
their Arraignement and Triall, viz. 

THe faid Grace Sowerbutts vpon her oath faith, That 
for the fpace of fome yeares now laft paft fhee hath 
beene haunted and vexed with fome women, who haue 
vfed to come to her: which women, fhee fayth, were 
Iennet Bierley, this Informers Grand-mother; Ellen Bier- 
ley, wife to Henry Bierley ; lane Southworth, late the wife 
of John Southworth, and one Old Doewife, all of Salmes- 
burie aforefaid. And fhee faith, That now lately thofe 
foure women did violently draw her by the haire of the 
head, and layd her on the toppe of a Hay-mowe, in 
the faid Henry Bierleyes Barne. And fhee faith further, 
That not long after the faid Iennet Bierley did meete 
this Examinate neere vnto the place where fhee dwell- 
leth, and firfl appeared in her owne likenene, and after 
that in the likenene of a blacke Dogge, and as this Exa- 
minate did goe ouer a Style, fhee picked her off: how- 
beit fhee faith fhee had no hurt then, but rofe againe, 
and went to her Aunts in Osbaldeflon, and returned 
backe againe to her Fathers houfe the fame night, be- 
ing fetched home by her father. And fhe faith, That 
in her way home-wards fhee did then tell her Father, 


of Witches at Lancafter. 

how fhee had beene dealt withall both then and at fun- 
dry times before that ; and before that time fhe neuer 
told any bodie thereof: and being examined why fhe 
did not, flie fayth, fhe could not fpeake thereof, though 
fhe defired fo to doe. And fhe further fayth, That vp- 
on Saterday, being the fourth of this inftant Aprill, 
fhee this Examinate going towards Salmesbury bote, 
to meete her mother, comming from Prefton, fhee faw 
the faid Iennet Bierley , who met this Examinate at a 
place called the Two Brigges, first in her owne fhape, 
and afterwardes in the likeneffe of a blacke Dogge, with 
two legges, which Dogge went clofe by the left fide of 
this Examinate, till they came to a Pitte of Water, and 
then the faid Dogge fpake, and perfuaded this Exami- 
nate to drowne her felfe there, faying, it was a faire and 
an eafie death : Whereupon this Examinate thought 
there came one to her in a white fheete, and carried 
her away from the faid Pitte , vpon the comming 
whereof the faid blacke Dogge departed away ; and 
fhortly after the faid white thing departed alfo : And 
after this Examinate had gone further on her way, a- 
bout the length of two or three Fields, the faid blacke 
Dogge did meete her againe, and going on her left fide, 
as aforefaid, did carrie her into a Barne of one Hugh 
Walfhmans, neere there by, and layed her vpon the 
Barne-floore, and couered this Examinate with Straw 
on her bodie, and Haye on her head, and the Dogge 
it felfe lay on the toppe of the faid Straw, but how 
long the faid Dogge lay there, this Examinate cannot 
tell, nor how long her felfe lay there: for fhee fayth, 
That vpon her lying downe there, as aforefaid, her 
Speech and Senfes were taken from her: and the firfl 

L time 

The Arraignement and Triall 

time fhee knew where fhee was, fhee was layed vpon a 
bedde in the faid Walfhmans houfe, which (as fhee hath 
iince beene told) was vpon the Monday at night fol- 
lowing: and fhee was alfo told, That fhee was found 
and taken from the place where fhee firft lay, by fome 
of her friends, and carried into the faid Walflimans 
houfe, within a few houres after fhee was layed in the 
Barne, as aforefaid. And fhee further fayth, That vpon 
the day following, being Tuefday, neere night of the 
fame day, fhee this Examinate was fetched by her Fa- 
ther and Mother from the faid Walfhmans houfe to her 
Fathers houfe. And fhee faith, That at the place be- 
fore fpecified, called the Two Brigges, the faid Iennet 
Bierley and Ellen Bierley did appeare vnto her in their 
owne fhapes : whereupon this Examinate fell downe, 
and after that was not able to fpeake, or goe, till the Fri- 
day following: during which time, as fhe lay in her Fa- 
thers houfe, the faid Iennet Bierley and Ellen Bierley did 
once appeare vnto her in their owne fhapes, but they 
did nothing vnto her then, neither did fhee euer fee 
them fince. And fhee further fayth, That a good 
while before all this, this Examinate did goe with the 
faid Iennet Bierley, her Grand-mother, and the faid 
Ellen Bierley her Aunt , at the bidding of her faid 
Grand-mother , to the houfe of one Thomas Walfh- 
man , in Salmesbury aforefaid . And comming thi- 
ther in the night, when all the houfe-hold was a- 
bed , the doores being fhut, the faid Iennet Bierley 
did open them, but this Examinate knoweth not 
how : and beeing come into the faid houfe, this 
Examinate and the faid Ellen Bierley flayed there, 
and the faid Iennet Bierley went into the Chamber 


of Witches at Lancqfter. 
where the laid Waljhman and his wife lay, & from thence 
brought a little child, which this Examinate thinketh 
was in bed with it Father and Mother : and after the faid 
Iennet Bierley had fet her downe by the fire, with the 
(aid child, fhee did thruft a naile into the nauell of the 
laid child : and afterwards did take a pen and put it in at 
the faid place, and did fuck there a good fpace, and af- 
terwards laid the child in bed againe : and then the faid 
Iennet and the faid Ellen returned to their owne houfes, 
and this Examinate with them. And fhee thinketh that 
neither the faid Thomas Waljhman, nor his wife knew that 
the faid child was taken out of the bed from them. And 
fliee faith alfo, that the faid child did not crie when it 
was hurt, as aforefaid: But fhee faith, that fhee thinketh 
that the faid child did thenceforth languifh, and not 
long after dyed. And after the death of the faid child ; 
the next night after the buriall thereof, the faid Iennet 
Bierley & Ellen Bierley, taking this Examinate with them, 
went to Salmefburie Church, and there did take vp the 
faid child, and the faid Iennet did carrie it out of the 
Church-yard in her armes, and then did put it in her lap 
and carryed it home to her owne houfe, and hauing it 
there did boile fome therof in a Pot, and fome did broile 
on the coales, of both which the faid Iennet & Ellen did 
eate, and would haue had this Examinate and one Grace 
Bierley , Daughter of the faid Ellen , to haue eaten with 
them, but they refufed fo to doe: And afterwards the 
faid Iennet & Ellen did feethe the bones of the faid child 
in a pot, & with the Fat that came out of the faid bones, 
they faid they would annoint themfelues, that thereby 
they might fometimes change themfelues into other 
fhapes. And after all this being done, they faid they 

L 2 would 

The Arraignement and Triall 

would lay the bones againe in the graue the next night 
following, but whether they did fo or not, this Exami- 
nate knoweth not : Neither doth fliee know how they 
got it out of the graue at the firft taking of it vp. And be- 
ing further fworne and examined, fhe depofeth & faith, 
that about halfe a yeare agoe, the faid Iennet Bierley, Ellen 
Bierley, lane Southworth, and this Examinate (who went 
by the appointment of the faid Iennet her Grand mo- 
ther) did meete at a place called Red banck, vpon the 
North fide of the water of Ribble, euery Thurfday and 
Sonday at night by the fpace of a fortnight, and at the 
water fide there came vnto them, as they went thether, 
foure black things, going vpright, and yet not like men 
in the face : which foure did carrie the laid three women 
and this Examinate ouer the Water, and when they 
came to the faid Red Banck they found fome thing there 
which they did eate. But this Examinate faith , fhee ne- 
uer faw fuch meate ; and therefore fhee durft not eate 
thereof, although her faid Grand mother did bidde her 
eate. And after they had eaten, the faid three Women 
and this Examinate danced, euery one of them with one 
of the blacke things aforefaid, and after their dancing the 
faid black things did pull downe the faid three Women, 
and did abufe their bodies, as this Examinate thinketh, 
for fhee faith, that the black thing that was with her, did 
abufe her bodie. 

The faid Examinate further faith vpon her Oth, That 
about ten dayes after her Examination taken at Black- 
borne, fhee this Examinate being then come to her Fa- 
thers houfe againe, after fhee had beene certaine dayes 
at her Vnckles houfe in Houghton : lane Southworth wi- 
dow, did meet this Examinate at her Fathers houfe dore 


of Witches at Lancqjler. 

and did carrie her into the loft, and there did lay her vp- 
pon the floore, where fliee was fliortly found by her Fa- 
ther and brought downe, and laid in a bed, as afterwards 
fliee was told : for fliee faith, that from the firfl meeting 
of the laid lane Southworth, fliee this Examinate had her 
ipeech and fenfes taken from her. But the next day fliee 
faith, fliee came fomewhat to her felfe, aud then the faid 
Widow Southworth came againe to this Examinate to 
her bed-fide, and tooke her out of bed, and faid to this 
Examinate, that fliee did her no harme the other time, 
in respect of that fliee now would after doe to her , and 
thereupon put her vpon a hey-ftack, Handing fome three 
or foure yards high from the earth , where fliee was 
found after great fearch made, by a neighbours Wife 
neare dwelling, and then laid in her bedde againe, where 
flie remained fpeechleffe and fenfeleffe as before, by the 
fpace of two or three daies: And being recouered, with- 
in a weeke after fliee faith, that the faid lane Southworth 
did come againe to this Examinate at her fathers houfe 
and did take her away, and laid her in a ditch neare to 
the houfe vpon her face, and left her there, where fliee 
was found fliortly after, and laid vpon a bedde, but had 
not her fenfes againe of a day & a night, or thereabouts. 
And fliee further faith, That vpon Tuefday laft before 
the taking of this her Examination, the faid lane South- 
worth came to this Examinates Fathers houfe, and fin- 
ding this Examinate without the doore, tooke her and 
carried her into the Barne, and thruft her head amongft 
a companie of boords that were there Handing , where 
fliee was fliortly after found and laid in a bedde, and re- 
mained in her old fit till the Thurfday at night follow- 

L 3 And 

The Arraignement and Triall 

And being further examined touching her being at 
Red-bancke, ftiee faith, That the three women, by her 
before named, were carried backe againe ouer Ribble, 
by the fame blacke things that carried them thither ; and 
faith that at their faid meeting in the Red-bancke, there 
did come alfo diuers other women, and did meete them 
there, fome old, fome yong, which this Examinate thin- 
keth did dwell vpon the North-fide of Ribble, becaufe 
fhe faw them not come ouer the Water: but this Exa- 
minate knew none of them, neither did fhe fee them eat 
or dance, or doe anything elfe that the reft did, fauing 
that they were there and looked on. 

Thefe particular points of Euidence being thus vr- 
ged againft the Prifoners : the father of this Grace Sower- 
butts prayed that Thomas Walfhman, whofe childe they 
are charged to murther, might be examined as a witnes 
vpon his oath, for the Kings Maieftie, againft the Prifo- 
ners at the Barre : who vpon this ftrange deuifed accufa- 
tion, deliuered by this impudent wench, were in opini- 
on of many of that great Audience guilty of this blou- 
die murther, and more worthy to die then any of thefe 


of Witches at Lancqfter. 

The Examination and Ruidence of 
Thomas Walshman, of Salmesbury, in the 
Countie of Lancqfter, Yeoman. 

Iennet Bierley, Ellen Bierley, and 
Iane Sovth worth, Prif oners at the Barre, vp- 
on their Arraignement and Triall, as follow eth. viz. 

THe faid Examinate, Thomas Walfhman, vpon his oath 
faith, That hee had a childe died about Lent was 
twelue-month, who had beene ficke by the fpace of a 
fortnight or three weekes, and was afterwards buried in 
Salmesburie Church : which childe when it died was a- 
bout a yeare old ; But how it came to the death of it, this 
Examinate knoweth not. And he further faith, that a- 
bout the fifteenth of Aprill laft, or thereabouts, the 
faid Grace Sowerbutts was found in this Examinates fa- 
thers Barne, laid vnder a little hay and ftraw, and from 
thence was carried into this Examinates houfe, 
and there laid till the Monday at night fol- 
lowing : during which time ftiee did 
not fpeak, but lay as if fhe had 
beene dead. 


The Arraignement and Triall 

The Examination of Iohn Single- 
ton: Taken at Sabnesbury, in the Countie of Lancqfier, 
the feuenth day of Augujl : Anno Reg. Regis Iacobi 
Anglise, Francise, & Hibernise, Fidei Defenfor. &c. 
Decimo & Scotise, xlvj. 

Robert Hovlden, Ef quire, one of his Maiejiies 
Iujiices of Peace in the County of Lancajier. 

Iennet Bierley, Ellen Bierley, and 
Iane Sovth worth, which hereafter followeth. 

THe faid Examinate vpon his oath faith, That hee 
hath often heard his old Matter, Sir Iohn Southworth 
Knight, now deceafed, fay, touching the late wife of 
Iohn Southworth, now in the Gaole, for fufpition of 
Witchcraft: That the faid wife was as he thought an 
euill woman, and a Witch : and he faid that he was for- 
ry for her husband, that was his kinsman, for he thought 
fhe would kill him. And this Examinate further faith, 
That the faid Sir Iohn Southworth in his comming or 
going betweene his owne houfe at Salmesbury, and the 
Towne of Prefton, did for the moft part forbeare to 
pane by the houfe, where the faid wife dwelled, though 
it was his neareft and bell way ; and rode another way, 
only for feare of the faid wife, as this Examinate verily 


of Witches at Lancqfter. 

The Examination of William 

A l k e r of Salmesbury, in the Countie of Lancajier, 
Yeoman : Taken the fifteenth day of Aprill, Anno Reg. 
Regis Iacobi, Angliae, Francise. & Hiberniae, Deci- 
mo & Scotia?, quadragefimo quinto. 

Robert Hovlden, one of his Maiefiies Iujlices 
of Peace in the County of Lancajier : Againft Iennet 
Bierley, Ellen Bierley, and Iane Bier- 
ley, which hereafter followeth. viz. 

THe faid Examinate vpon his oath faith, That hee 
hath feene the faid Sir John Southworth fhunne to 
meet the faid wife of Iohn Southworth, now Prifoner in 
the Gaole, when he came neere where fhe was. And hath 
heard the faid Sir Iohn Southworth fay, that he liked her 
not, and that he doubted fhe would bewitch him. 

Here was likewife Thomas Sowerbutts, father of Grace 
Sower butts, examined vpon his oath, and many other 
witnefTes to little purpofe : who being examined by the 
Court, could depofe little againft them: But the finding 
of the wench vpon the hay in her counterfeit fits : wher- 
fore I leaue to trouble you with the particular declara- 
tion of their Euidence againft the Prifoners, In refpect 
there was not any one witnes able to charge them with 
one direct matter of Witchcraft; nor proue any thing 
for the murther of the childe. 

Herein, before we come to the particular declaration 
of that wicked and damnable practife of this Iefuite or 
Seminary, I fhall commend vnto your examination and 
iudgement fome points of her Euidence, wherein you 

M fhall 

The Arraignement and Triall 

fhal fee what impoflibilities are in this accufatio brought 
to this perfection, by the great care and paines of this 
officious Doctor, Mafter Thompfon or Southworth, who 
commonly worketh vpon the Feminine difpofition, being 
more Pafliue then Actiue. 

The particular points of the Kuidence of 
Grace Sovverbutts, viz. 


T Hat for the /pace of fome yeares Jhe hath been haunted 
and vexed with fome women, who haue vfed to come 
to her. 
The Iefuite forgot to inftruct his Scholler how long 
it is fmce fhe was tormented : it feemes it is long fmce he 
read the old Badge of a Lyer, Oportet mendacem ejfe me- 
morem. He knowes not how long it is fmce they came to 
church, after which time they began to practife Witch- 
craft. It is a likely thing the Torment and Panges of 
Witchcraft can be forgotten; and therefore no time can 
be fet downe. 

Shee faith that now lately the e foure women did violently 
draw her by the haire of the head, and lay her on the top 
of a Hay-7now. 

Heere they vfe great violence to her, whome in ano- 
ther place they make choife to be of their counfell, to go 
with them to the houfe of Walfhman to murther the 
childe. This courtefie deferues no difcouery of fo foule 
a Fact. 


of Witches at Lancqfter. 

Not long after, the faid Iennet Bierley did meet this 
Examinate neere vnto the place where Jhe dwelled, 
and firjl appeared in her owne likenejfe, and after 
that in the likenejfe of a blacke Dogge. 

Vno Sf eodem tempore, fhee transformed her felfe into 
a Dogge. I would know by what meanes any Prieft can 
maintaine this point of Euidence. 

And as fhee went ouer a Style, fliee picked her ouer, 
hut had no hurt. 

This is as likely to be true as the reft, to throw a 
child downe from the toppe of a Houfe, and neuer 
hurt her great toe. 

She rofe againe ; had no hurt, went to her Aunt, 
and returned backe againe to her Fathers houfe, 
being fetched home. 

I pray you obferue thefe contrarieties, in order as 
they are placed, to accufe the Prifoners. 

Saterday the fourth of this instant Aprill. 

Which was about the very day the Witches of the 
Forreft of Pendle were fent to Lancafter. Now was 
the time for the Seminarie to inftruct, accufe, and call 
into queftion thefe poore women : for the wrinkles of 
an old wiues face is good euidence to the Iurie againft 
a Witch. And how often will the common people fay 
(Her eyes are funke in her head, God bleffe vs from her.) 
But old Chattoa? had Fancie, befides her withered face, 
to accufe her. 

M 2 This 

The Arraignement and Triall 

This Exanimate did goe with the /aid Iennet Bier- 
ley her Grand-mother , and Ellen Bierley her 
Aunt, to the houfe of Walfhman, in the night- 
time, to murther a Child in ajirange manner. 

This of all the reft is impoflible, to make her of their 
counfell, to doe murther, whome fo cruelly and barba- 
roufly they purfue from day to day, and torment her. 
The Witches of the Forreft of Pendle were neuer fo 
cruell nor barbarous. 

And JJiee alfo faith, the Child cried not when it was 

All this time the Child was afleepe, or the Child was 
of an extraordinarie patience, 6 inauditum f acinus I 

After they had eaten, the faid three ivomen and this 
Ewaminate daunced euery one of them with one of 
the Blacke things : and after, the Blacke things a- 
hufed the faid women. 

Here is good Euidence to take away their Hues. This 
is more proper for the Legend of Lyes, then the Eui- 
dence of a witneffe vpon Oath, before a reuerend and 
learned Iudge, able to conceiue this Villanie, and finde 
out the practife. Here is the Religious act of a Prieft, 
but behold the euent of it. 

She defcribes the foure Blacke things to goe vpright, 
but not like Men in the face. 

The Seminarie miftakes the face for the feete : For 
Chattow and all her fellow Witches agree, the Deuill is 
clouen-footed : but Fancie had a very good face, and 
was a very proper Man. 


of Witches at Lancafler. 

About tenne dayes after her Examination taken at 
Black-borne, then (lie was tormented. 

Still he purfues bis Proiect: for hearing his Scholler 
had done well, he laboured fhe might doe more in this 
nature. But notwithftanding, many things are layd to 
be in the times when they were Papifts: yet the Prieft 
neuer tooke paines to difcouer them, nor inftruct his 
Scholler, vntill they came to Church. Then all this 
was the Act of God, to raife a child to open all things, 
and then to difcouer his plotted Tragedie. Yet in this 
great difcouerie, the Seminarie forgot to deuife a Spirit 
for them. 

And for Thomas Walfhman, vpon his Oath he fayth, 
That his Childe had beene ficke by the fpace of a fort- 
night, or three weekes, before it died. And Grace Sower- 
butts faith, they tooke it out of the bedde, ftrucke a nayle 
into the Nauell, fucked bloud, layd it downe againe ; and 
after, tooke it out of the Graue, with all the refl, as you 
haue heard. How thefe two agree , you may, vpon 
view of their Euidence, the better conceiue, and be able 
to judge. 

How well this proiect, to take away the Hues of three 
innocent poore creatures by practife and villanie; to in- 
duce a young Scholler to commit periurie, to accufe her 
owne Grand-mother, Aunt, &c. agrees either with the 
Title of a Iefuite, or the dutie of a Religious Prieft, who 
fhould rather profeffe Sinceritie and Innocencie, then 
practife Trecherie : But this was lawfull ; for they are 
Heretikes accurfed, to leaue the companie of Priefts ; to 
frequent Churches, heare the word of God preached, 
and profeffe Religion lincerely. 

M 3 But 

The Arraignement and Triall 

But by the courfe of Times and Accidents, wife men 
obferue, that very feldome hath any mifchieuous at- 
tempt beene vnder-taken without the direction or affi- 
ftance of a Iefuit, or Seminarie Prieft. 

Who did not condemne thefe Women vpon this eui- 
dence, and hold them guiltie of this fo foule and horri- 
ble murder? But Almightie God, who in his prouidence 
had prouided meanes for their deliuerance, although 
the Prieft by the help of the Deuill, had prouided falfe 
witneffes to accufe them; yet God had prepared and 
placed in the Seate of Iuftice, an vpright Iudge to fit in 
Iudgement vpon their Hues, who after he had heard all 
the euidence at large againft the Prifoners for the Kings 
Majeftie, demanded of them what anfwere they could 
make. They humbly vpon their knees with weeping 
teares , defired him for Gods caufe to examine Grace 
Sowerbuts, who fet her on, or by whofe meanes this ac- 
cufation came againft them. 

Immediately the countenance of this Grace Sowerbuts 
changed: The witneffes being behinde, began to quar- 
rell and accufe one an other. In the end his Lordfhip 
examined the Girle, who could not for her life make a- 
ny direct anfwere, but ftrangely amazed, told him, fhee 
was put to a Mafter to learne, but he told her nothing of 

But here as his Lordfhips care and paines was great to 
difcouer the practifes of thefe odious Witches of the 
Forreft of Pendle, and other places, now vpon their tri- 
all before him: So was he defirous to difcouer this dam- 
nable practife, to accufe thefe poore Women, and bring 
their liues in danger, and thereby to deliuer the inno- 


of Witches at Lancqfter. 

And as he openly deliuered it vpon the Bench, in the 
hearing of this great Audience : That if a Prieft or Iefuit 
had a hand in one end of it, there would appeare to bee 
knauerie, and practife in the other end of it. And that it 
might the better appeare to the whole World, exami- 
ned Thomas Sowerbuts, what Mafter taught his daughter: 
in generall termes, he denyed all. 

The Wench had nothing to fay, but her Mafter told 
her nothing of this. In the end, fome that were prefent 
told his Lordfhip the truth, and the Prifoners informed 
him how fliee went to learne with one Thompfon a Se- 
minarie Prieft, who had inftructed and taught her this 
accufation againft them, becaufe they were once obfti- 
nate Papifts, and now came to Church. Here is the dif- 
couerie of this Prieft, and of his whole practife. Still this 
fire encreafed more and more , and one witneffe accu- 
fing an other, all things were laid open at large. 

In the end his Lordfhip tooke away the Girle from 
her Father, and committed her to M. Leigh, a very reli- 
gious Preacher, and M. Chifnal, two Iuftices of the Peace, 

to be carefully examined. Who tooke great paines to 

examine her of euery particular point : In the 

end they came into the Court, and there 

deliuered this Examination 

as followeth. 



The Arraignement and Trial! 

The Examination of Grace Sower- 
bvts, of Salmesburie , in the Countie of Lancajier , Spin- 
Jier : Taken vpon Wednefday the 19. of Augujl 1612. 
Annoq; Reg. Regis, Iacobi Anglue, Francice, Sf Hi- 
bernice, Fidei Defenforis, fyc. decimo fy Scotice, xlvi. 


William Leigh, and Edward Chisnal, 
F [quires ; two of his Maiejiies Iuftices of Peace in the fame 
Countie : A t the Aj sizes and generall Gaole deliuerie , hoi- 
den at Lancajier. 


Direction of Sir Edward Bromley Knight, one 
of his Maiejiies Iijlices of Af size at Lancajier. 

BEing demanded whether the accufation fhee laid vp- 
pon her Grand-mother, Lennet Bierley , Ellen Bierley, 
and Lane Southworth, of Witchcraft, viz. of the killing of 
the child of Thomas Waljhman, with a naile in the Nauell, 
the boyling, eating, and oyling, thereby to transforme 
themfelues into diuers fhapes, was true ; fhee doth vt- 
terly denie the fame ; or that euer fhee faw any fuch pra- 
ctifes done by them. 

Shee further faith, that one Matter Thompfon, which 
fhe taketh to be Matter Chrijlopher Southworth, to whom 
fhee was fent to learne her prayers, did perfwade, coun- 
fell, and aduife her, to deale as formerly hath beene faid 
againft her faid Grand-mother, Aunt, and Southworths 


of Witches at Lancqfter. 

And further fliee confeffeth and faith, that fhee ne- 
uer did know, or faw any Deuils, nor any other Viri- 
ons, as formerly by her hath beene alleaged and infor- 

Also fhee confeffeth and faith, That fhee was not 
throwne or call vpon the Henne-rufFe, and Hay-mow 
in the Barne, but that fhee went vp vpon the Mow her 
felfe by the wall fide. 

Being further demanded whether fhee euer was at 
the Church, fhee faith, fliee was not, but pro- 
mifed her after to goe to the Church, 
and that very wil- 

Signum x Grace Sowerbuts, 

William Leigh. 

Edward ChifnaL 

N The 

The Arraignement and Triall 

The Examination of Iennet Bier- 
ley, Ellen Bierley, and Iane Sovth- 
worth, of Salmesburie , in the Countie of Lancajler, 
Taken vpon Wednefday the nineteenth of August 1612. 
Annoq; Reg, Regis, Iacobi Anglice, Francice, ty Hi- 
bernice, Fidei Defenforis, tyc. decimo fy Scotice, xlvi. 


William Leigh, and Edward Chisnal, 
Ef quires ; two of his Maiejiies Iujiices of Peace in the fame 
Countie : At the Af sizes and generall Gaole deliuerie , hol- 
den at Lancajler. 


Direction of Sir Edward Bromley Knight, one 
of his Maiejiies Iujiices of Af size at Lancajler. 

IEnnet Bierley being demanded what fhee knoweth, or 
hath heard, how Grace Sowerbuts was brought to Chri- 
Jlopher Southworth, Prieft ; fhee anfwereth, that fhee was 
brought to M. Singletons houfe by her owne Mother, 
where the faid Prieft was, and that fhee further heard 
her faid Mother fay, after her Daughter had been in her 
fit, that fhee fhould be brought vnto her Mafter, mea- 
ning the faid Prieft. 

And Ihee further faith, that fhee thinketh it was by 
and through the Counfell of the faid M. Thomfon , alias 
Southworth, Prieft, That Grace Sowerbuts her Grand- 
child accufed her of Witchcraft, and of fuch practifes as 
fhee is accufed of: and thinketh further, the caufe why 
the faid Thompfon, alias Southworth Prieft, fhould practife 
with the Wench to doe it was, for that fhee went to the 
Church. lane 

of Witches at Lancafter. 

lane Southivorth faith fhee faw Mailer Thompfon, alias 
Southworth, the Prieft, a month or fixe weekes before 
fhe was committed to the Gaole ; and had conference 
with him in a place called Barne-hey-lane, where and 
when fhee challenged him for flandering her to bee a 
Witch : whereunto he anfwered, that what he had heard 
thereof, he heard from her mother and her Aunt : yet 
fhe, this Examinate, thinketh in her heart it was by his 
procurement, and is moued fo to thinke, for that fhee 
would not be diffwaded from the Church. 

Ellen Bierley faith, Shee faw Matter Thompfon, alias 
Sonthworth, fixe or eight weeks before fhe was commit- 
ted, and thinketh the faid Prieft was the practifer with 
Grace Sowerbutts, to accufe her of Witchcraft, and know- 
eth no caufe why he fhould fo doe, but becaufe fhe go- 
eth to the Church. 

Signum^ * Iennet Bierley. 
Signum^ £ lane Southworth. 
Signum, $ Ellen Bierley. 

William Leigh. 

Edward ChisnalL 

N 2 Thefe 

The Arraignement and Triall 

Thefe Examinations being taken, they were brought 
into the Court, and there openly in the prefence of this 
great Audience publifhed, and declared to the Iurie of 
Life and Death; and thereupon the Gentlemen of their 
Iury required to confider of them. For although they 
flood vpon their Triall, for matter of Fact of Witch- 
craft, Murther, and much more of the like nature: yet 
in refpect all their Accufations did appeare to bee pra- 
ctife : they were now to confider of them, aud to acquit 
them. Thus were thefe poore Innocent creatures, by 
the great care and paines of this honorable Iudge, deli- 
uered from the danger of this confpiracie; this bloudie 
practife of the Prieft laid open : of whofe fact I may law- 
fully fay; Etiamji ego tacuero clamabunt lapides. 

Thefe are but ordinary with Priefts and Iefuites: no 
refpect of Bloud, kindred, or friendfhip, can moue them 
to forbeare their Confpiracies : for when he had labou- 
red treacheroufly to feduce and conuert them, and yet 
could doe no good ; then deuifed he this meanes. 

God of his great mercie deliuer vs all from them and their 
damnable confpiracies : and when any of his Maiejlies fub- 
iects, fo free and innocent as thefe, Jhall come in quejlion, grant 
them as honorable a Triall, as Reuerend and worthy a Iudge 
to Jit in Iudgement vpon them ; and in the end as fpeedie a 
deliuerance. And for that which I haue heard of them ; 
feene with my eyes, and taken paines to Reade of them : My 
humble prayer Jhall be to God Almightie. Vt Conuertan- 
tur ne pereant. Aut confundantur ne noceant. 

To conclude, becaufe the difcourfe of thefe three 
women of Salmesbury hath beene long and trouble- 


of Witches at Lancqfter. 

ibme to you; it is heere placed amongft the Witches, 
by fpecial order and commandement, to fet forth to the 
World the practife and confpiracie of this bloudy But- 
cher. And because I haue prefented to your view a Ka- 
lender in the Frontifpice of this Booke, of twen- 
tie notorious Witches: I fhall fhew you their 
deliuerance in order, as they came to 
their Arraignement and Triall e- 
uery day, and as the Gentle- 
men of euery Iury for life 
and death flood 
charged with 


The Arraignement and Trial! 


and Triall of Anne Eedferne, 
Daughter o/Anne Whittle, alias Chattox, 
of the Forreji of Pendle, in the Countie of Lancajler, for 
Witchcraft ; vpon Wednefday the nineteenth of Augujl, 
at the Afsifes and General! Gaole-deliuerie , holden at 

Sir Edward Bromley Knight, one of his Ma- 
iejiies Iuftices of Afsife at Lancajier. 

Anne Redferne. 

Vch is the horror of Murther, and the cry- 
ing fmne of Bloud, that it will neuer bee 
fatisfied but with Bloud. So fell it out 
with this miferable creature, Anne Red- 
feme, the daughter of Anne Whittle, alias 
Chattow : who, as fhee was her Mother, and brought her 
into the World, fo was fhe the meanes to bring her into 
this danger, and in the end to her Execution, for much 
Bloud fpilt, and many other mifchiefes done. 

For vpon Tuefday night (although you heare little 
of her at the Arraignement and Triall of old Chattoa?, 
her Mother) yet was fhee arraigned for the murther of 


of Witches at Lancafter. 

Robert Nutter, and others: and by the fauour and mer- 
cifull confideration of the Iurie, the Euidence being not 
very pregnant againft her, flie was acquited, and found 
Not guiltie. 

Such was her condition and courfe of life, as had fhe 
liued, flie would haue beene very dangerous : for in ma- 
king pictures of Clay, fhe was more cunning then any: 
But the innocent bloud yet vnfatisfied, and crying out 
vnto God for fatisfaction and reuenge ; the crie of his 
people (to deliuer them from the danger of fuch horri- 
ble and bloudie executioners, and from her wicked and 
damnable practifes) hath now againe brought her to a 
fecond Triall, where you fhall heare what wee haue vp- 
on Record againft her. 

This Anne Redferne, prifoner in the Caftle at Lanca- 
fler, being brought to the Barre, before the great Seat of 
Iuftice, was there, according to the former order and 
courfe, indicted and arraigned, for that fhe fellonioufly 
had practifed, exercifed, and vfed her deuillifh and wic- 
ked Arts, called Witchcrafts, Inchauntments, Charmes* and 
Sorceries, in and vpon one Chriflopher Nutter, and him the 
faid Chriflopher Nutter, by force of the fame Witchcrafts, 
fellonioufly did kill and murther, Contra formam Sta- 
tuti Sfc. Et Contra Pacem fyc. 

Vpon her Arraignement to this Indictment, fhe plea- 
ded Not-Guiltie ; and for the triall of her life put her felfe 
vpon God and the Countrey. 

So as now the Gentlemen of the Iurie of Life and 
Death^ftand charged with her as with others. 

The Euidence againfl Anne Redferne, Prifoner 
at the Barre. 


The Arraignement and Trial! 

The Examination of Elizabeth 
Sothernes, alias Old Dembdike, taken at the 
Fence, in the Forrejl ofPendle, in the Countie of Lancajler, 
the fecond day of Aprill, Anno Reg. Regis Iacobi, 
Anglise, &c. decimo, & Scotise xlv. 

Anne Redferne (the daughter o/Anne Whit- 
tle, alias C H a t t o x) Prifoner at the Barre : 

Roger Now el of Reade, Ef quire, one of his Maie- 
Jiies lujlices of Peace within the f aid Countie. 

THis Examinate faith, That about halfe a yeare be- 
fore Robert Nutter died, as this Examinate thinketh, 
this Examinate went to the houfe of Thomas Redferne, 
which was about Midfummer, as ihee this Examinate 
now remembreth it : and there, within three yards of 
the Eafl end of the faid houfe, fliee faw the faid Anne 
Whittle and Anne Redferne, wife of the faid Thomas Red- 
ferne, and daughter of the faid Anne Whittle, the one on 
the one fide of a Ditch, and the other on the other fide, 
and two pictures of Clay or Marie lying by them, and 
the third picture the faid Anne Whittle was making. And 
the faid Anne Redferne, her faid daughter, wrought her 
Clay or Marie to make the third picture withall. And 
this Examinate pafling by them, a Spirit, called Tibbe, in 
the fhape of a blacke Cat, appeared vnto her this Exa- 
minate and faid, Turne backe againe, and doe as they 
doe. To whom this Examinate faid, What are they do- 

of Witches at Lancqfter. 

ing? Whereunto the faid Spirit faid, They are making 
three pictures : whereupon fhee afked, whofe pictures 
they were? whereunto the faid Spirit faid, They are the 
pictures of Chrijiopher Nutter, Robert Nutter, and Mary, 
wife of the faid Robert Nutter. But this Exanimate deny- 
ing to goe backe to helpe them to make the pictures a- 
forefaid, the faid Spirit feeming to be angrie therefore, 
mot or pufhed this Examinate into the Ditch; and so 
fhedde the milke which this Examinate had in a Kanne, 
or Kitt 5 and fo thereupon the Spirit at that time vani- 
flied out of this Examinates fight. But prefently after 
that, the faid Spirit appeared vnto this Examinate again 
in the fhape of a Hare, and fo went with her about a 
quarter of a myle, but faid nothing vnto her this Exa- 
minate, nor fhee to it. 

The Examination of Margaret 

the faid Anne Redferne: Taken the day and 
yeare aforefaid, 

Roger Now el aforefaid, Ef quire, one of his Ma- 
iejlies Iujlices of the Peace in the Countie of Lancqfter. 

THis Examinate, fworne & examined vpon her oath, 
fayth, That about eighteene or nineteene yeares a- 
goe, this Examinates brother, called Robert Nutter, about 
Whitfontide the fame yeare, meeting with the faid Anne 
Redferne, vpon fome fpeeches betweene them they fell 


The Arraignement and Triall 

out, as this Examinats faid brother told this Examinat : 
and within fome weeke, or fort-night, then next after, 
this Examinats faid brother fell ficke, and fo languifhed 
vntill about Candlemas then next after, and then died. 
In which time of his fickneffe, he did a hundred times 
at the lea ft fay, That the faid Anne Redferne and her af- 
fociates had bewitched him to death. And this Exami- 
nate further saith, That this Examinates Father, called 
Chriftopher Nutter, about Maudlintide next after fol- 
lowing fell ficke, and fo languifhed, vntill Michaelmas 
then next after, and then died : during which time of his 
fickneffe, hee did fundry times fay, That hee was bewit- 
ched ; but named no bodie that fhould doe the fame. 

The Examination of Iohn Nvtter, 
of Higham Booth, in the Forreji of Pendle, in the 
Countie of Lancafter, yeoman, 

the faid Anne Redferne: Taken the day and yeare 

Roger Now el EJ quire, one of his Maiejiies Iujii- 
ces of Peace in the Countie of Lancaster. 

THis Examinate, fworne and examined vpon his oath, 
fayth, That in or about Chriftmas, fome eighteene 
or nineteene yeares agoe, this Examinat comming from 
Burnley with Chriftopher Nutter and Robert Nutter, this 
Examinates Father and Brother, this Examinate heard 


of Witches at Lancqfter. 

his faid Brother then fay vnto his faid Father these 
words, or to this effect. Father, I am Jure I am bewitched 
by the Chattox, Anne Chattox, and Anne Redferne her 
daughter, I pray you caufe them to bee layed in Lancqfter 
Caftle : Whereunto this Examinates Father anfwe- 
red, Thou art a foolifh Ladde, it is not fo, it is 
thy mifcarriage. Then this Examinates Brother wee- 
ping, faid ; nay, I am fure that I am bewitched by them, 
and if euer I come againe (for hee was readie to goe to 
Sir Richard Shuttleworths, then his Matter) I will procure 
them to bee laid where they fhall be glad to bite Lice in 
two with their teeth. 

Hereupon Anne Whittle, alias Chattox, her Mother, 
was brought forth to bee examined, who confeffed the 
making of the pictures of Clay, and in the end cried out 
very heartily to God to forgiue her fmnes, and vpon her 
knees intreated for this Redferne, her daughter. 

Here was likewife many witneffes examined vpon 
oth Viua voce, who charged her with many ftrange pra- 
ctifes, and declared the death of the parties, all in fuch 
fort, and about the time in the Examinations formerly 

All men that knew her affirmed, fhee was more dan- 
gerous then her Mother, for fhee made all or moft of the 
Pictures of Clay, that were made or found at any time. 

Wherefore I leaue her to make good vse of the lit- 
tle time fhe hath to repent in: but no meanes 
could moue her to repentance, for 
as fhee liued, fo fhee 

O 2 The 

The Arraicjnement and Triall 

The Examination ^ Iames Device, 

taken the day and yeare afore-faid. 

Roger Nowel, and Nicholas Banne- 
s t e r, EJ quires : two of his Maiejiies luftices of Peace 
within the f aid Countie of Lancqfter. viz. 

He faid Examinate vpon his oath faith, That about 
two yeares agoe, hee this Examinate faw three Pi- 
ctures of Clay, of halfe a yard long, at the end of Red- 
femes houfe, which Redferne had one of the Pictures in 
his hand, Marie his daughter had another in her hand, 
inne Redferne an( i the faid Redf ernes wife, now prifoner at Lancafter, 
he witch. had an other Picture in her hand, which Picture fhe the 
faid Redfernes wife, was then crumbling, but whose Pi- 
ctures they were, this Examinate cannot tell. And at 
his returning backe againe, fome ten Roods off them 
there appeared vnto him this Examinate a 
thing like a Hare, which fpit fire 
at him this Exami- 


of Witches at Lancajier 


and Triall of Alice Nvtter, 

of the Forreji of Pendle, in the Countie of Lancajier, for 
Witch-craft \ vpon Wednefday the nineteenth of Augu/l, 
at the Af sizes and generall Gaole deliuerie, holden at 


Sir Edward Bromley Knight, one of his 
Maiejlies Iujlices of Af size at Lancajier. 

Alice Nutter. 

He two degrees of perfons which chiefly 
practife Witch-craft, are fuch, as are in 
great miferie and pouertie, for fuch the 
Deuill allures to follow him, by promifmg 
great riches, and worldly commoditie ; 
Others, though rich, yet burne in a defperate defire of 
Reuenge ; Hee allures them by promifes, to get their 
turne fatisfied to their hearts contentment, as in the 
whole proceedings against old Chattox : the examina- 
tions of old Dembdike; and her children, there was 
not one of them, but haue declared the like, when the 
Deuill firft aflaulted them. 

3 But 

The Arraignement and Triall 

But to attempt this woman in that fort, the Diuel had 
fmall meanes : For it is certaine fhe was a rich woman ; 
had a great eftate, and children of good hope : in the 
common opinion of the world, of good temper, free 
from enuy or malice ; yet whether by the meanes of the 
reft of the Witches, or fome vnfortunate occafion, fhee 
was drawne to fall to this wicked courfe of life, I know 
not : but hither fhee is now come to receiue her Triall, 
both for Murder, and many other vilde and damnable 

Great was the care and paines of his Lordfhip, to 
make triall of the Innocencie of this woman, as fhall ap- 
peare vnto you vpon the Examination of Iennet Deuice, 
in open Court, at the time of her Arraignement and 
Triall ; by an extraordinary meanes of Triall, to marke 
her out from the reft. 

It is very certaine fhe was of the Grand-counfell at 
Malking-Tower vpon Good-Friday, and was there pre- 
fent, which was a very great argument to condemne 

This Alice Nutter, Prifoner in the Caftle at Lanca- 
fter : Being brought to the Barre before the Great Seat 
of Iuftice ; was there according to the former order and 
courfe Indicted and Arraigned, for that fhe fellonioufly 
had practifed, exercifed, and vfed her diuellifh and wic- 
ked Arts, called Witchcrafts, Inchantments, Charmes and 
Sorceries, in and vpon Henry Mitton : and him the said 
Henry Mitton, by force of the fame Witchcrafts, felloni- 
oufly did kill and murther. Contra formam Statuti, &c. 
Et Contra Pacem, &c. 

Vpon her Arraignement, to this Indictment fhee 
pleaded not guiltie ; and for the triall of her life, put 


of Witches at Lancajler. 

her felfe vpon God and the Countrey. 

So as now the Gentlemen of the Iury of life and death 
Hand charged with her, as with others. 

The Euidence againjl Alice Nutter Pri- 
foner at the Barre. 

The Examination of Iames Device 

forme 0/ Elizabeth Device: Taken the feuen 
and twentieth day of Aprill : Anno Reg. Regis Iacobi 
Anglise, Francise, & Hibernise, Fidei Defenfor. &c. 
Decimo & Scotise, xlvj. 

Roger Now el and Nicholas Bane- 
s t e r, two of his Maiejiies Iujiices of Peace in the Coun- 
tie of Lancajler. Againjl Alice Nutter. 

THe faid Examinate faith vpon his oath, That hee 
heard his Grand-mother fay, about a yeare ago, that 
his mother, called Elizabeth Deuice, and his Grand-mo- 
ther, and the wife of Richard Nutter, of the Rough-Lee the Prifon) 
aforefaid, had killed one Henry Mitton, of the Rough- 
Lee aforefaid, by Witchcraft. The reafon wherefore 
he was fo killed, was for that this Examinats faid Grand- 
mother had asked the faid Mitton a penny : and hee de- 
nying her thereof; thereupon fhee procured his death 
as aforefaid. 


The Arraignement and Triall 

The Examination of Elizabeth 
Device, mother of the faid Iames Device. 

Alice Nvtter, wife of Richard Nvt- 
ter, Prifoner at the Barre, vpon her Arraiqnement and 

Roger Now el and Nicholas Bane- 
s t e r, Ef quires, the day and yeare aforefaid. 

THis Examinate vpon her oath confeffeth, and faith, 
That fhe, with the wife of Richard Nutter, called A- 
lice Nutter, Prifoner at the Barre ; and this Examinates 
faid mother, Elizabeth Sotherne, alias Old Demdike; ioy- 
ned altogether, and bewitched the faid Henry Mitton to 

This Examinate further faith, That vpon Good-fri- 
day laft, there dined at this examinats houfe two women 
of Burneley Parifh, whofe names the faid Richard Nut- 
ters wife, Alice Nutter, now Prifoner at the Barre, doth 


of Witches at Lancqfter. 

The Examination of Iames Device 


The faid Alice Nvtter, the daye and yeare a- 

THE faid Examinate vpon his oath faith, That vpon 
Good-Friday about twelue of the clocke in the day 
time, there dined in this Examinats faid mothers houfe, 
a number of perfons, whereof three were men, with this 
Examinate, and the reft women: and that they mette 
there for thefe three caufes following, as this Examinats 
faid mother told this Examinate. 

The firft was for the naming of the Spirit, which A- 
lizon Beuice, now Prifoner at Lancafter, had, but did not 
name him, becaufe fhe was not there. 

The fecond caufe was, for the deliuerie of his faid 
Grand-mother ; this Examinates faid fifter, Alizon ; the 
faid Anne Chattoa?, and her daughter Redferne ; killing 
the Gaoler at Lancaster, and before the next Aflizes to 
blow vp the Caftle there ; to the end that the forefaid 
Prifoners might by that meanes make an efcape, and 
get away : all which this Examinate then heard them 
conferre of. 

And he alfo faith, The names of fuch Witches as were 
on Good-Friday at this Examinats faid Grand-mothers 
houfe, and now this Examinates owne mothers, for fo 
many of them as he doth know, were amongft others, 
Alice Nutter, mother of Myles Nutter, now Prifoner at 
the Barre. And this Examinate further faith, That all 
the faid Witches went out of the faid houfe in their 

P owne 

The Arraignement and Trial! 

owne fhapes and likeneffes ; and they all, by that time 
they were forth of the doores, were gotten on horfe- 
backe, like vnto Foales, fome of one colour, and fome of 
another ; and Preftons wife was the laft : and when fhee 
got on horfe-back, they all prefently vanifhed out of this 
Examinates fight : and before their faid parting away, 
they all appointed to meete at the faid Preftons wifes 
houfe that day twelue month, at which time the faid 
Preftons wife promifed to make them a great feaft : and 
if they had occafion to meete in the meane time, then 
fhould warning be giuen to meet upo Romleys Moore. 

The Examination and Euidence of 
Iennet Device, daughter of Elizabeth 

Alice Nvtter, Prifoner at the Barre. 

THe faid Examinate faith, That on Good-Friday 
laft, there was about 20. perfons, whereof only two 
were men (to this Examinates remembrance) at her faid 
Grand-mothers houfe at Malking-Tower, about twelue 
of the clock ; all which perfons, this Examinats faid mo- 
ther tould her, were Witches. And fhe further faith, fhe 
knoweth the names of fix of them, viz. the wife of Hugh 
Hargreiues vnder Pendle, Chriftopher Howgate of Pendle, 
Vncle to this Examinat and Elizabeth his wife ; and Dick 
Myles wife of the Rough-Lee, Chriftopher lacks of Thor- 
niholme, and his wife ; and the names of the refidue, fhe 
this Examinate doth not know. 


of Witches at Lancajler. 

AFter these Examinations were openly read, his 
Lordfliip being very sufpitious of the accufation of 
this yong wench Iennet Deuice, commanded one to take 
her away into the vpper Hall, intending in the meane 
time to make Triall of her Euidence, and the Accufati- 
on elpecially againft this woman, who is charged to haue 
beene at Malking-Tower, at this great meeting. Master 
Couel was commanded to fet all his prifoners by them- 
felues, and betwixt euery Witch another Prifoner, and 
fome other ftrange women amongft them, fo as no man 
could iudge the one from the other : and thefe being fet 
in order before the Court from the prifoners, then was 
the Wench Iennet Deuice commaunded to be brought 
into the Court: and being fet before my Lord, he tooke 
great paines to examine her of euery particular Point, 
What women were at Malking-Tower vpon Good- 
Friday ? How fhe knew them ? What were the names of 
any of them ? And how fhe knew them to be fuch as fhe 
named ? 

In the end being examined by my Lord, Whether 
flie knew them that were there by their faces, if fhe faw 
them ? flie told my Lord fhe fhould : whereupon in the 
prefence of this great Audience, in open Court, fhe went 
and tooke Alice Nutter, this prifoner, by the hand, and 
accufed her to be one : and told her in what place fhee 
fat at the Feafl at Malking-Tower, at the great affembly 
of the Witches, and who fat next her : what conference 
they had, and all the reft of their proceedings at large, 
without any manner of contrarietie. 

Being demaunded further by his Lordfliip, Whether 
fhe knew Iohan a Style f fhe alledged, flie knew no such 
woma to be there, neither did fhe euer heare her name. 

P 2 This 

The Arraignement and Triall 

This could be no forged or falfe Accufation, but the 
very Act of God to difcouer her. 

Thus was no meanes left to doe her all indifferent fa- 
uour, but it was vfed to faue her life ; and to this fhee 
could giue no anfwere. 

But nothing would ferue : for old Dembdike, old Chat- 
tow, and others, had charged her with innocent bloud, 
which cries out for Reuenge, and will be fatisfied. And 
therefore Almightie God, in his Iuftice, hath cut her 

And here I leaue her, vntill fhee come to her Execu- 
tion, where you fhall heare fhee died very impenitent ; 
infomuch as her owne children were neuer able to 
moue her to confeffe any particular offence, or de- 
clare any thing, euen in Articulo Mortis : which 
was a very fearefull thing to all that 
were prefent, who knew fhee 
was guiltie. 

* * 


of Witches at Lancqjter. 


and Triall of Katherine He wit, 
Wife of I o hn Hew it, alias Movld-heeles, 
of Conine, in the Countie of Lancqfier Clothier, for 
Witchcraft ; vpon Wednefday the nineteenth of Augitfi, 
at the Afsifes and Generall Gaole-deliuerie , holden at 

Sir Edward Bromley Knight, one of his Ma- 
iejlies Iujlices of Afsife at Lancqfier. 

Katherine Hewit. 

Ho but Witches can be proofes, and fo 
witneffes of the doings of Witches ? fince 
all their Meetings, Confpiracies, Practifes, 
fand Murthers, are the workes of Darke- 
neffe : But to difcouer this wicked Furie, 
God hath not only raifed meanes beyond expecta- 
tion, by the voluntarie Confeffion and Accufation 
of all that are gone before, to accufe this Witch (be- 
ing Witches, and thereby witneffes of her doings) 
but after they were committed, by meanes of a Child, 
to difcouer her to be one, and a Principall in that wic- 
ked affembly at Malking-Tower, to deuife fuch a dam- 
nable courfe for the deliuerance of their friends at 

P 3 Lan- 

The Arraignement and Triall 

Lancafter, as to kill the Gaoler, and blow vp the Caftle, 
wherein the Deuill did but labour to affemble them to- 
gether, and fo being knowne to fend them all one way : 
And herein I fhall commend vnto your good confide- 
ration the wonderfull meanes to condemne thefe par- 
ties, that liued in the world, free from fufpition of any 
fuch offences, as are proued againft them : And thereby 
the more dangerous, that in the fucceffe we may law- 
fully fay, the very Finger of God did point the out. And 
fhe that neuer faw them, but in that meeting, did accufe 
them, and by their faces discouer them. 

This Katherine Hewyt, Prifoner in the Caftle at Lan- 
cafter, being brought to the Barre before the great Seate 
of Iuftice, was there according to the former order and 
courfe Indicted and Arraigned, for that fhe fellonioufly 
had practized, exercifed, and vfed her Deuillilh and wic- 
ked Arts, called Witch-crafts, Inchantments, Charmes, and 
Sorceries, in, and vpon Anne Foulds ; and the fame Anne 
Foulds, by force of the fame witch-craft, fellonioufly did 
kill and murder. Contra formam Statuti, fyc. Et contra 
Pacem dicti Domini Regis, fyc. 

Vpon her Arraignement to this Indictment, fhee 
pleaded not guiltie ; And for the triall of her life put her 
felfe vpon God and her Countrie. 

So as now the Gentlemen of the Iurie of life and 
death, ftand charged with her as with others. 

The Euidence againft Katherine Hewyt, 
Prifoner at the Barre. 


of Witches at Lancqfter. 

The Examination of Iames Device, 
Sonne of Elizabeth Device, taken the feuen and 
twentieth day of Apr ill, Anno Reg. Regis Iacobi, An- 
glise, Francise, & Hibernise, decimo, et Scotise quadra- 
gefimo quarto. 

Roger Nowel, and Nicholas Banne- 
s t e r, Ef quires ; two of his Maiejlies luftices of Peace, 
in the Countie of Lancqfter. 

Katherine Hewyt, alias Movld-heeles 
of Colne. viz. 

THis Examinate faith, that vpon Good-Friday lait, 
about twelue of the Clock in the day time, there di- 
ned at this Examinates Mothers houfe a number of per- 
fons: And hee alfo faith, that they were Witches; and 
that the names of the faid Witches, that were there, for 
fo many of them as he did know, were amongft others 
Katherine Hewyt, wife of Iohn Hewyt, alias Mould-heeles, 
of Colne, in the Countie of Lancafter Clothier ; And 
that the faid Witch, called Katherine Hewyt, alias Mould- 
heeles, and one Alice Gray, did confefle amongft the faid 
Witches at their meeting at Malkin-Tower aforefaid, 
that they had killed Foulds wifes child, called Anne 
Foulds, of Colne : And alfo faid, that they had then in 
hanck a child of Michael Hartleys of Colne. 

And this Examinate further faith, that all the faid 
Witches went out of the faid houfe in their own fhapes 
and likeneffes, and by that time they were gotten forth 


The Arraignement and Triall 

of the doores, they were gotten on Horfe-back like vn- 
to foales, fome of one colour, fome of an other, and the 
faid Prestons wife was the laft : And when fhe got on 
Horfe-back, they all prefently vanifhed out of this Exa- 
minates fight. And before their faid parting away they 
all appointed to meete at the faid Prestons wifes houfe 
that day twelue Moneths : at which time the faid Pre- 
Jlons wife promifed to make them a great feaft, and if 
they had occafion to meete in the meane time, then 
fhould warning be giuen that they all fhould meet vpon 

The Examination and Euidence of Eliza- 
beth Device, Mother of the faid Iames 

Katherine Hewyt, alias Mo vld-heeles, 
Prifoner at the Barre vpon her Arraignement and Triall, 
taken the day and yeare aforefaid. viz. 

THis Examinate vpon her oath confeneth, that vpon 
Good-Friday laft there dyned at this Examinates 
houfe, which fhe hath faid are Witches, and verily thin- 
keth to bee Witches, fuch as the faid Iames Deuice hath 
formerly fpoken of: amongft which was Katherine He- 
wyt, alias Moidd-heeles, now Prifoner at the Barre: and 
fhee alfo faith, that at their meeting on Good-Friday at 
Malkin-Tower aforefaid, the faid Katherine Hewyt, alias 
Mould-heeles, and Anne Gray, did confeffe, they had kil- 

of Witches at Lancqfter. 

led a child of Foidds of Colne, called Anne Fmdds, and 
had gotten hold of another. 

And fhee further faith, the faid Katherine Hewyt with 
all the reft, there gaue her confent with the faid Prejlons 
wife for the murder of Mafter Lifter. 

The Rxamination and Rutdence of 
Iennet Device, 

Katherine Hewyt, alias Movld-heeles, 
Prifoner at the Barre. 

THe faid Examinate faith, That vpon Good-Friday 
laft, there was about twentie perfons, whereof two 
were men to this Examinates remembrance, at her faid 
Grand-mothers houfe, called Malkin-Tower aforelaid, 
about twelue of the clock : All which perfons this Exa- 
minates faid mother told her were Witches, and that 
fhee knoweth the names of fixe of the faid Witches. 

Then was the faid Iennet Deuice commanded by his 
Lordfhip, to finde and point out the faid Katherine He- 
wyt, alias Mould-heeles, amongft all the reft of the faid 
Women, whereupon ftiee went and tooke the faid Ka- 
therine Hewyt by the hand : Accufed her to bee one, and 
told her in what place ftiee fate at the feaft at Malkin- 
Tower, at the great Affembly of the Witches, and who 
fate next her; what conference they had, and all the 
reft of their proceedings at large, without any manner 
of contrarietie : Being demanded further by his Lord- 

Q fhip,' 

The Arraignement and Triall 

fhip, whether Ioane a Downe were at that Feaft, and mee- 
ting, or no ? fhee alleaged fhee knew no fuch woman to 
be there, neither did fhee euer heare her name. 

If this were not an Honorable meanes to trie the ac- 
cufation againft them, let all the World vpon due exa- 
mination giue iudgement of it. And here I leaue her 
the laft of this companie, to the Verdict of the Gentle- 
men of the Iurie of life and death, as hereafter fhall ap- 

Heere the Iurie of Life and Death, hauing fpent the 
moft part of the day, in due confideration of their of- 
fences, Returned into the Court to deliuer vp their Ver- 
dict againft them, as followeth. 

The Verdict of Life and 

WHo vpon their Oathes found Iennet Bierley, Ellen 
Bierley , and lane Southworth, not guiltie of the 
offence of Witch-craft, conteyned in the Indictment a- 
gainft them. 

Anne Redferne, guiltie of the fellonie & murder, con- 
teyned in the Indictment againft her. 

Alice Nutter, guiltie of the fellonie and murder con- 
teyned in the Indictment againft her. 

Katherine Hewyt, guiltie of the fellonie & murder con- 
teyned in the Indictment againft her. 


of Witches at Lancafter. 

Whereupon Matter Couell was commanded by the 
Court to take away the Prifoners Conuicted, and to 
bring forth lolin Bulcocke, lane Bulcocke his mother, and 
Alizon Deuice, Prifoners in the Caftle at Lancafter, to 
receiue their Trialls. 

Who were brought to their Arraignement and Tri- 
all as hereafter followeth. 



The Arraignement and Triall 


and Triall 0/* I o h n Bvlcock, 
and I a n e B v l c o c k his mother, wife of Chri- 
stopher B v l c o c k, of the Mojfe-end, in the Coun- 
tie of Lancajier, for Witch-craft : vpon Wednefday in the 
after-noone, the nineteenth of Auguft, 1612. At the Af- 
Jizes and general! Gaole deliuery, holden at Lancajier. 

Sir Edward Bromley, Knight, one of his Ma- 
iejiies Iujlices of Af sizes at Lancajier. 

John Bulcock, 


Jane Bulcock his mother. 

F there were nothing to charge thefe Pri- 
foners withall, whom now you may be- 
hold vpon their Arraignement and Tri- 
all but their poafting in hafte to the great 
Affembly at Malking-Tower, there to 
aduife and confult amongft the Witches, what were to 
bee done to fet at liberty the Witches in the Caftle at 
Lancafter : Ioyne with Iennet Pre/ion for the murder of 
Master Lifter ; and fuch like wicked & diuellish practifes : 


of Witches at Lancajler. 

It were lufficient to accufe them for Witches, & to bring 
their Hues to a lawfull Triall. But amongft all the Wit- 
ches in this company, there is not a more fearefull and 
diuellifh Act committed, and voluntarily confeffed by 
any of them, comparable to this, vnder the degree of 
Murder : which impudently now (at the Barre hauing 
formerly confeffed ;) they forfweare, fwearing they 
were neuer at the great affembly at Malking Tower; al- 
though the very Witches that were prefent in that acti- 
on with them, iuftifie, maintaine, and fweare the fame to 
be true againft them : Crying out in very violent & out- 
ragious manner, euen to the gallowes, where they died 
impenitent for any thing we know, becaufe they died fi- 
lent in the particulars. Thefe of all others were the moft 
defperate wretches (void of all feare or grace) in all this 
Packe ; Their offences not much inferiour to Murther : 
for which you fhall heare what matter of Record wee 
haue againft them ; and whether they be worthie to con- 
tinue, we leaue it to the good confideration of the Iury. 

The faid Iohn Bulcock, and lane Bulcock his mother, Pri- 
foners in the Caftle at Lancafter, being brought to the 
Barre before the great Seat of Iuftice : were there accor- 
ding to the former order and courfe Indicted and Ar- 
raigned, for that they fellonioufly had practifed, exerci- 
fed and vfed their diuellifh & wicked Arts, called Witch- 
crafts, Inchantments, Charmes and Sorceries, in and vpon 
the body of Iennet Deane : fo as the body of the faid Ien- 
net Deane, by force of the faid Witchcrafts, wafted and 
confumed; and after fhe, the faid Iennet, became madde. 
Contra formam Statuti, &c. Et Contra pacem, &c. 

Vpon their Arraignement, to this Indictment they 
pleaded not guiltie ; and for the triall of their Hues put 

Q 3 them- 

The Arraignement and Triall 

themselues vpon God and their Countrey. 

So as now the Gentlemen of the Iurie of Life and 
Death Hand charged with them as with others. 

The Euidence againji Iohn Bulcock, and Jane 
Bulcock his mother, Prifoners at the Barre. 

The Examination ^ Iames Device 

taken the feuen and twentieth day of Aprill afore/aid. 

Roger Now el and Nicholas Bane- 
s t e r, EJ quires, two of his Maiejlies Iuftices of Peace in 
the Countie of Lancajier. 

Iohn Bvlcock and Iane Bvlcock his mo- 

THis Examinate faith, That vpon Good-Friday, a- 
bout twelue of the clocke in the day time, there di- 
ned in this Examinates faid Mothers houfe a number of 
perfons, whereof three were men with this Examinate, 
and the reft women, and that they met there for thefe 
three caufes following, as this Examinates faid mother 
told this Examinate. The firft was, for the naming of 
the Spirit which Allifon Deuice, now prifoner at Lanca- 
fter had, but did not name him, becaufe fhee was not 
there. The fecond caufe was, for the deliuerie of his 
faid Grand-mother ; this Examinates faid fifter Allifon ; 
the faid Anne Chattox, and her daughter Redferne, killing 


of Witches at Lancqfter. 

the Gaoler at Lancafter, and before the next Aflifes to 
blow vp the Caftle there, to that end the aforefaid prifo- 
ners might by that meanes make an efcape, and get a- 
way : All which this Examinate then heard them 
conferre of. 

And he alfo fayth, That the names of fuch faid Wit- 
ches as were on Good-Friday at this Examinates faid 
Grand-mothers houfe, and now this Examinates owne 
mothers, for fo many of them as hee did know, were 
thefe, viz. lane Bulcock, wife of Chrifiopher Bulcock, of the 
MofTe end, and Iohn her fonne amongft others, &c. 

And this Examinate further faith, That all the faid 
Witches went out of the faid houfe in their own fliapes 
and likeneffes : and they all, by that they were forth of 
the dores, were gotten on horfe-backe, like vnto Foales, 
fome of one colour, and fome of another, and Prestons 
wife was the laft : and when fhee got on horfe-backe, 
they all prefently vanifhed out of this Examinates 

And further he faith, That the faid Iohn Bulcock and 
lane his faid Mother, did confeffe vpon Good-Friday 
laft at the faid Malking-Tower, in the hearing of this 
Examinate, That they had bewitched, at the new-field 
Edge in Yorkefhire, a woman called lennet, wife of Iohn 
Deyne, befides, her reafon ; and the faid Womans name 
fo bewitched, he did not heare them fpeake of. And 
this Examinate further faith, That at the faid Feaft at 
Malking-Tower this Examinate heard them all giue 
their confents to put the faid Matter Thomas Lister of 
Weftby to death. And after Mafter Lister fhould be 
made away by Witch-craft, then all the faid Witches 
gaue their confents to ioyne all together, to hanck Ma- 

The Arraignement and Triall 

iter Leonard Lifter, when he fhould come to dwell at the 
Cow-gill, and fo put him to death. 

The Examination of Elizabeth 
Device, Taken the day and yeare aforefaid, 

Roger Now el and Nicholas Bane- 
ster, EJ quires, two of his Maiesties lustices of Peace in 
the Countie of Lancaster, 

Iohn Bvlcock, and Iane B v l c o c k, his 

THis Examinate faith vpon her oath, That fhe doth 
verily thinke, that the faid Bulcockes wife doth know 
of fome Witches to bee about Padyham and Burn- 

And fhee further faith, That at the faid meeting at 
Malking-Tower, as aforefaid, Katherine Hewyt and Iohn 
Bulcock, with all the reft then there, gaue their confents, 
with the faid Prestons wife, for the killing of the faid 
Master Lister. 


of Witches at Lancajler. 

The Examination and Euidence of 
Iennet Device 

Iohn Bvlcocke and Iane his mother, prif oners 
at the Barre. 

THe faid Examinate faith, That vpon Good-Friday 
laft there was about twentie perfons, whereof two 
were men, to this Examinates remembrance, at her faid 
Grand-mothers ho life, called Malking-Tower afore- 
faid : all which perfons, this Examinates faid mother 
told her were Witches, and that fhe knoweth the names 
of fixe of the faid Witches. 

Then was the faid Iennet Deuice commaunded by his 
Lordfhip to finde and point out the faid Iohn Bulcock 
and Iane Bulcock amongft all the reft ; whereupon fhee 
went and tooke Iane Bulcock by the hand, accufed her to 
be one, and told her in what place fhee fat at the Feaft 
at Malking-Tower, at the great Affembly of the Wit- 
ches ; and who fat next her : and accufed the faid Iohn 
Bulcock to turne the Spitt there ; what conference they 
had, and all the reft of their proceedings at large, with- 
out any manner of contrarietie. 

Shee further told his Lordfhip, there was a woman 
that came out of Craven to that Great Feaft at Mal- 
king-Tower, but fhee could not finde her out amongft 
all thofe women. 

R The 

The Arraignement and Triall 

^[ The names of the Witches at the 

Great AJfembly and Feaji at 
Malking-Tower, viz. vpon Good- 
Friday laft, 1612. 

Elizabeth Deuice. 

Alice Nutter, 

Katherine Hewit , alias 

John Bulcock. 

Jane Bulcock. 

Alice Graie. 

Jennet Hargraues. 

Elizabeth Hargraues. 

Chrijlopher Howgate. 
Sonne to old Dembdike. 

Chrijlopher Hargraues. 


of Witches at Lancqfter. 

Grace Hay^ of Padiham. 

Anne Crunckfhey^ of Marchden. 

Elizabeth Howgate. 

jfennet Prejlon , Executed at Yorke 
for the Murder of Mafter Lister, 

With many more, which being bound ouer to ap- 
peare at the laft Aflizes, are fince that time fled to faue 

R 2 The 

The Arraignement and Triall 


and Triall <?/ Alizon Device, 
Daughter of Elizabeth Device, within the For- 
reji ofPendle, in the Countie of Lancajier aforefaid, for 

Alizon Deuice. 

Ehold, aboue all the reft, this lamentable 
fpectacle of a poore diftreffed Pedler, how 
miferably hee was tormented, and what 
punifhment hee endured for a fmall of- 
fence, by the wicked and damnable pra- 
ctife of this odious Witch, firft inftructed therein by old 
Dembdike her Grand-mother, of whofe life and death 
with her good conditions, I haue written at large before 
in the* beginning of this worke, out of her owne Exami- 
nations and other Records, now remayning with the 
Clarke of the Crowne at Lancafter : And by her Mother 
brought vp in this deteftable courfe of life ; wherein I 
pray you obferue but the manner and courfe of it in or- 
der, euen to the laft period at her Execution, for this 
horrible fact, able to terrifie and aftonifh any man ti- 

This Alizon Deuice, Prifoner in the Caftle of Lanca- 

of Witches at Lancqfier. 

fter, being brought to the Barre before the great Seat of 
Iuftice, was there according to the former order and 
courfe indicted and arraigned, for that fhee fellonioufly 
had practifed, exercifed, and vfed her Deuillifh and wic- 
ked Arts, called Witch-crafts, Lnchantments, Charmes, and 
Sorceries, in, and vpon one lohn Law, a Petti-chapman, 
and him had lamed ; fo that his bodie wafted and con- 
fumed, &c. Contra formam Statuti, fyc. Et contra pacem 
dicti Domini Regis, Coronam Sf Dignitatem, tyc. 

Vpon the Arraignement, The poore Pedler, by name 
John Law, being in the Caftle about the Moot-hall, atten- 
ding to be called, not well able to goe or ftand, being led 
thether by his poore fonne Abraham Law: My Lord Ger- 
rard moued the Court to call the poore Pedler, who was 
there readie, and had attended all the Affizes, to giue e- 
uidence for the Kings Majeftie againft the faid Alizon 
Deuice, Prifoner at the Barre, euen now vpon her Triall. 
The Prifoner being at the Barre, & now beholding the 
Pedler, deformed by her Witch-craft, and transformed 
beyond the courfe of Nature, appeared to giue euidence 
againft her; hauing not yet pleaded to her Indictment, 
faw it was in vaine to denie it, or ftand vpon her juftifi- 
cation: Shee humbly vpon her knees at the Barre with 
weeping teares, prayed the Court to heare her. 

Whereupon my Lord Bromley commanded fhee 
fhould bee brought out from the Pnfoners neare vnto 
the Court, and there on her knees, fhee humbly asked 
forgiueneffe for her offence : And being required to 
make an open declaration or confeffion of her offence: 
Shee confeffed as followeth. viz. 

R 3 The 

The Arraignement and Triall 

The Confefsion (?/ Alizon Device, 

Prifoner at the Barre : publijhed and declared at time 
of her Arraignement and Triall in open Court. 

SHe faith, That about two yeares agone, her Grand- 
mother, called Elizabeth Sothernes, alias Dembdike, did 
(fundry times in going or walking together, as they 
went begging) perfwade and aduife this Examinate to 
let a Diuell or a Familiar appeare to her, and that fhee, 
this Examinate would let him fuck at fome part of her; 
and fhe might haue and doe what fhee would. And fo 
not long after thefe perfwafions, this Examinate being 
walking towards the Rough-Lee, in a Clofe of one lohn 
Robinfons, there appeared vnto her a thing like vnto a 
Blacke Dogge : fpeaking vnto her, this Examinate, and 
defiring her to giue him her Soule, and he would giue 
her power to doe any thing fhee would: whereupon this 
Examinate being therewithall inticed, and fetting her 
downe; the faid Blacke-Dogge did with his mouth (as 
this Examinate then thought) fucke at her breaft, a little 
below her Paps, which place did remain blew halfe^a 
yeare next after : which faid Blacke-Dogge did not ap- 
peare to this Examinate, vntill the eighteenth day of 
March laft: at which time this Examinate met with a 
Pedler on the high-way, called Colne-field, neere vnto 
Colne : and this Examinate demanded of the faid Ped- 
ler to buy fome pinnes of him ; but the faid Pedler ftur- 
dily anfwered this Examinate that he would not loofe 
his Packe ; and fo this Examinate parting with him : pre- 
fently there appeared to this Examinate the Blacke- 
Dogge, which appeared vnto her as before : which Black 


of Witches at Lancqfter. 

Dogge fpake vnto this Examinate in Englifh, faying; 
What wouldft thou haue me to do vnto yonder man? to 
whom this Examinate faid, What canft thou do at him? 
and the Dogge anfwered againe, I can lame him : where- 
upon this Examinat anfwered, and faid to the faid Black 
Dogge, Lame him: and before the Pedler was gone for- 
tie Roddes further, he fell downe Lame: and this Exa- 
minate then went after the faid Pedler; and in a houfe 
about the diftance aforefaid, he was lying Lame: and fo 
this Examinate went begging in Trawden Forreft that 
day, and came home at night: and about hue daies next 
after, the faid Black-Dogge did appeare to this Exami- 
nate, as fhe was going a begging, in a Cloafe neere the 
New-Church in Pendle, and fpake againe to her, faying; 
Stay and Ipeake with me; but this Examinate would 
not : Sithence which time this Examinat neuer faw him. 

Which agreeth verbatim with her owne Exami- 
nation taken at Reade, in the Countie of 
Lancafter, the thirtieth day of March, be- 
fore Mqfter Nowel, when Jhe was apprehen- 
ded and taken. 

MY Lord Bromley, and all the whole Court not a 
little wondering, as they had good caufe, at this 
liberall and voluntarie confeffion of the Witch ; which 
is not ordinary with people of their condition and quali- 
tie : and beholding alfo the poore diftreffed Pedler, Han- 
ding by, commanded him vpon his oath to declare the 
manner how, and in what fort he was handled ; how he 
came to be lame, and fo to be deformed ; who depofed 
vpon his oath, as followeth. 


The Arraignement and Triall 

The Euidence of Iohn La vv, 
Pettie Chapman, vpon his Oath : 

Alizon Device, Prifoner at the Barre. 

HE depofeth and faith, That about the eighteenth of 
March laft paft, hee being a Pedler, went with his 
Packe of wares at his backe thorow Colne-field: where 
vnluckily he met with Alizon Deuice, now Prifoner at 
the Barre, who was very earneft with him for pinnes, but 
he would giue her none : whereupon fhe feemed to be 
very angry ; and when hee was paft her, hee fell downe 
lame in great extremitie ; and afterwards by meanes got 
into an Ale-houfe in Colne, neere vnto the place where 
hee was firft bewitched : and as hee lay there in great 
paine, not able to ftirre either hand or foote ; he faw a 
great Black-Dogge ftand by him, with very fearefull fi- 
rie eyes, great teeth, and a terrible countenance, looking 
him in the face ; whereat he was very fore afraid : and 
immediately after came in the faid Alizon Deuice, who 
ftaid not long there, but looked on him, and went away. 

After which time hee was tormented both day and 
night with the faid Alizon Deuice', and fo continued 
lame, not able to trauell or take paines euer fince that 
time : which with weeping teares in great paffion tur- 
ned to the Prifoner; in the hearing of all the Court hee 
faid to her, This thou hnowejl to be too true: and thereup- 
on fhe humblie acknowledged the fame, and cried out 
to God to forgiue her; and vpon her knees with wee- 
ping teares, humbly prayed him to forgiue her that wic- 
ked offence ; which he very freely and voluntarily did. 


of Witches at Lancafter. 

Hereupon Matter Nowel Handing vp, humbly prayed 
the fauour of the Court, in refpect this Fact of Witch- 
craft was more eminent and apparant than the reft, that 
for the better iatisfaction of the Audience, the Exami- 
nation of Abraham Law might be read in Court. 

The Examination of Abraham 
L a vv, of Hallifaw, in the Countie of Yorke, Cloth-dier, 
taken vpon oath the thirtieth day of March, 1612. 

Roger Nowel, Ef quire, aforefaid. 

BEing fworne and examined, faith, That vpon Satur- 
day laft faue one, being the one and twentieth day 
of this inftant March, he, this Examinate was fent for, 
by a letter that came from his father, that he fhould 
come to his father, Iohn Law, who then lay in Colne 
fpeechlelfe, and had the left-fide lamed all faue his eye : 
and when this Examinate came to his father, his faid fa- 
ther had fomething recouered his fpeech, and did com- 
plaine that hee was pricked with Kniues, Elfons and 
Sickles, and that the fame hurt was done vnto him at 
Colne-field, prefently after that Alizon Deuice had offe- 
red to buy fome pinnes of him, and fhe had no money 
to pay for them withall; but as this Examinates father 
told this Examinate, he gaue her fome pinnes. And this 
Examinate further faith, That he heard his faid father 
fay, that the hurt he had in his lameneffe was done vnto 
him by the faid Alizon Denice, by Witchcraft. And this 

S Exami- 

The Arraignement and Triall 

Examinate. further faith, that hee heard his faid Father 
further fay, that the faid Alizon Deuice did lie vpon him 
and trouble him. And this Examinate feeing his faid 
Father fo tormented with the faid Alizon and with one 
other olde woman, whome this Examinates Father did 
not know as it feemed: This Examinate made fearch 
after the faid Alizon, and hauing found her, brought her 
to his faid Father yefterday being the nine and twenteth 
of this inftant March: whofe faid Father in the hearing 
of this Examinate and diuers others did charge the faid 
Alizon to haue bewitched him, which the faid Alizon 
confeffmg did aske this Examinates faid Father for- 
giueneffe vpon her knees for the fame ; whereupon 
this Examinates Father accordingly did forgiue her. 
Which Examination in open Court vpon his oath hee 
iuftified to be true. 

Whereupon it was there affirmed to the Court that 
this Iohn Law the Pedler, before his vnfortunate mee- 
ting with this Witch, was a verie able sufficient flout 
man of Bodie, and a goodly man of Stature. But by 
this Deuillifh art of Witch-craft his head is drawne awrie, 
his Eyes and face deformed, His fpeech not well to bee 
vnderftood ; his Thighes and Legges ftarcke lame : his 
Armes lame efpecially the left fide, his handes lame and 
turned out of their courfe, his Bodie able to indure no 
trauell : and thus remaineth at this prefent time. 

The Prifoner being examined by the Court whe- 
ther fhee could helpe the poore Pedler to his former 
ftrength and health, fhe anfwered fhe could not, and fo 
did . many of the reft of the Witches : But fhee, with 
others, affirmed, That if old Dembdike had liued, fhee 
could and would haue helped him out of that great mi- 


of Witches at Lancqfter. 

lerie, which fo long he hath endured for fo fhiall an of- 
fence, as you haue heard. 

Thefe things being thus openly publillied againft her, 
and fhe knowing her felfe to be guiltie of euery particu- 
lar, humbly acknowledged the Indictment againft her 
to be true, and that fhe was guiltie of the offence there- 
in contained, and that ihe had iuftly deferued death for 
that and many other fuch like : whereupon fhe was car- 
ried away, vntill fhe fhould come to the Barre to receiue 
her judgement of death. 

Oh, who was prefent at this lamentable ipectacle, 
that was not moued with pitie to behold it ! 

Hereupon my Lord Gerard, Sir Richard Houghton, and 
others, who much pitied the poore Pedler, At the en- 
treatie of my Lord Bromley the Iudge, promifed fome 
prefent courfe fhould be taken for his reliefe and main- 
tenance; being now difcharged and fent away. 

But here I may not let her paffe ; for that I find fome 
thing more vpon Record to charge her withall: for al- 
though fhe were but a young Witch, of a yeares flan- 
ding, and thereunto induced by Dembdike her Grand- 
mother, as you haue formerly heard, yet fhe was fpot- 
ted with innocent bloud among the reft : for in one part 
of the Examination of lames Deuice, her brother, he de- 
pofeth as followeth, viz. 

S 2 The 

The Arraigneinent and Trialt 

The Examination of I a m e s De- 
vice, brother to the faid Alizon Device: Taken 
vpon Oath 

Roger Now el Ef quire, aforefaid, the thirtieth day 
of March, 1612. 

I Ames Deuice, of the Forrest of Pendle, in the Countie 
of Lancafter, Labourer, fworne and examined, fayth, 
That about Saint Peters day laft one Henry Bulcock came 
to the houfe of Elizabeth Sothernes, alias Dembdike, 
Grand-mother to this Exanimate, and said, That the 
faid Alizon Deuice had bewitched a Child of his, and de- 
fired her, that fhee would goe with him to his houfe : 
which accordingly fhee did : and thereupon fhee the 
faid Alizon fell downe on her knees, and asked the faid 
Bulcock forgiueneffe ; and confeffed to him, that fhe had 
bewitched the faid Child, as this Examinate heard his 
laid fitter confeffe vnto him this Examinate. 

And although fhee were neuer indicted for this of- 
fence, yet being matter vpon Record, I thought it con- 
uenient to joyne it vnto her former Fact. 

HEre the Iurie of Life and Death hauing fpent the 
mofl part of the day in due confideration of their 
offences, returned into the Court to deliuer up their 
Verdict againft them, as followeth. 


of Witches at Lancajier. 

The Verdict of Life 
and Death. 

WHo vpon their Oathes found John Bulcock and 
lane Bulcock his mother, not guiltie of the Felo- 
nie by Witch-craft, contained in the Indictment a- 
gainft them. 

Alizon Deuice conuicted vpon her owne Con- 

Whereupon Mafter Couel was commaunded by the 
Court to take away the Prifoners conuicted, and to 
bring forth Margaret Pearson, and Ifabell Robey, Pri- 
foners in the Caftle at Lancafter, to receiue their 

Who were brought to their Arraignement and Tri- 
alls, as hereafter followeth, viz. 


The Arraignement and Trial! 


and Triall 0/* Margaret Pear- 
son o/ Paddiham, in the Countie of Lancqfter, for 
Witchcraft ; the nineteenth of August, 1612. at the 
Afsifes and Generall Gaole-deliuerie , holden at Lan- 

Sir EdvvardBromley Knight, one of his Ma- 
iejlies Iujlices of Afsife at Lancajier. 

Margaret Pearfon. 

Hus farre haue I proceeded in hope your 
patience will endure the end of this dis- 
courfe, which craues time, and were bet- 
ter not begunne at all, then not perfected. 
This Margaret Pearfon was the wife of 
Edward Pearfon of Paddiham, in the Countie of Lanca- 
fter; little inferiour in her wicked and malicious courfe 
of life to any that hath gone before her : A very dange- 
rous Witch of long continuance, generally fufpected 
and feared in all parts of the Countrie, and of all good 
people neare her, and not without great caufe : For who- 
foeuer gaue her any iuft occafion of offence, fhee tor- 

of Witches at Lancafler. 

mented with great miferie, or cut off their children, 
goods, or friends. 

This wicked and vngodly Witch reuenged her furie 
vpon goods, fo that euery one neare her fuftained great 
lofle. I place her in the end of these notorious Witches, 
by reafon her iudgeraent is of an other Nature, accor- 
ding to her offence ; yet had not the fauour and mercie 
of the Iurie beene more than her defert, you had found 
her next to old Dembdike ; for this is the third time fhee 
is come to receiue her Triall; one time for murder by 
Witch-craft ; an other time for bewitching a Neigh- 
bour ; now for goods. 

How long fliee hath been a Witch, the Deuill 
and fhee knows bell. 

The Accufations, Depofitions, and particular Exa- 
minations vpon Record againft her are infinite, and were 
able to fill a large Volume ; But fmce fhee is now only to 
receiue her Triall for this laft offence. I shall proceede 
againft her in order, and fet forth what matter we haue 
vpon Record, to charge her withall. 

This Margaret Pear/on, Prifoner in the Caftle at Lan- 
cafter : Being brought to the Barre before the great Seat 
of Iuftice ; was there according to the courfe and order 
of the Law Indicted and Arraigned, for that fhee 
had practifed, exercifed, and vfed her diuellifh and wic- 
ked Arts, called Witchcrafts, Inchantments, Charmes and 
Sorceries, and one Mare of the goods and Chattels 
of one Dodgefon of Padiham, in the Countie of Lan- 
cafter, wickedly, malicioufly, and voluntarily did kill. 
Contra formam Statuti, fyc. Et Contra pacenz dicti Domini 
Regis, fyc. 


The Arraignement and Triall 

Vpon her Arraignement to this Indictment, fliee 
pleaded not guiltie; And for the triall of her offence put 
her felfe vpon God and her Countrie. 

So as now the Gentlemen of the Iurie of her offence 
and death, ftand charged with her as with others. 

The Euidence againjl Margaret Pearfon, 
Prifoner at the Barre. 

The Examination and Euidence of 
Anne Whittle, alias Chattox. 

Margaret Pearson, Prifoner at the Barre. 

THe faid Anne Chattox being examined faith, That 
the wife of one Pearfon of Paddiham, is a very euill 
Woman, and confeffed to this Examinate, that fhee is a 
Witch, and hath a Spirit which came to her the firft 
time in likeneffe of a Man, and clouen footed, and that 
fhee the faid Pearfons wife hath done very much harme 
to one Dodgefons goods, who came in at a loope-hole in- 
to the faid Dodgefons Stable, and fhee and her Spirit to- 
gether did fit vpon his Horfe or Mare, vntill the faid 
Horfe or Mare died. And likewife, that fhee the faid 
Pearfons wife did confeffe vnto her this Examinate, that 
fhee bewitched vnto death one Childers wife, and her 
Daughter, and that fhee the faid Pearfons wife is as ill as 


of Witches at Lancajfer. 

The Examination of Iennet Booth, 
of Paddiham, in the Countie of Lancaffer, the ninth day 
ofAuguft 1612. 

Nicholas Bannester, EJ quire ; one of his 
Maiejlies hiftices of Peace in the Countie of Lancqfter. 

IEnnet, the wife of lames Booth, of Paddiham, vpon her 
oath faith, That the Friday next after, the faid Pear- 
fons wife, was committed to the Gaole at Lancafier, 
this Examinate was carding in the faid Pearfons houfe, 
hailing a little child with her, and willed the faid Mar- 
gerie to giue her a little Milke, to make her faid child a 
little meat, who fetcht this Examinate fome, and put it 
in a pan ; this examinat meaning to fet it on the fire, found 
the faid fire very ill, and taking vp a flick that lay by her, 
and brake it in three or foure peeces, and laid vpon the 
coales to kindle the fame, then fet the pan and milke on 
the fire : and when the milke was boild to this Exami- 
nates content, fhe tooke the pan wherein the milke was, 
off the faid fire, and with all, vnder the bottome of the 
fame, there came a Toade, or a thing very like a Toade, 
and to this Examinates thinking came out of the fire, 
together with the faid Pan, and vnder the bottome of 
the fame, and that the faid Margerie did carrie the faid 
Toade out of the faid houfe in a paire of tonges; But 
what fhee the faid Margerie did therewith, this Exami- 
nate knoweth not. 

After this were diuers witneffes examined againft her 
in open Court, viua voce, to proue the death of the Mare, 

T and 

The Arraignement and Triall 

and diuers other vild and odious practifes by her com- 
mitted, who vpon their Examinations made it fo appa- 
rant to the Iurie as there was no queftion ; But becaufe 
the fact is of no great importance, in refpect her life is 
not in queftion by this Indictment, and the Depofitions 
and examinations are many, I leaue to trouble you with 
any more of them, for being found guiltie of this of- 
fence, the penaltie of the Law is as much as her good 
Neighbours doe require, which is to be deli- 
uered from the companie of fuch a 
dangerous, wicked, and mali- 
cious Witch. 



of Witches at Lancajier. 


and Trial I of Isabel Robey 

in the Countie of Lancajier, for Witch-craft : vpon Wednefday 
the nineteenth of Aucjuji, 1612. At the Af sizes and generall 
Goale-deliuery, holden at Lancajier. 

Sir Edward Bromley, Knight, one of his Ma- 
iejlies Iujlices of Af sizes at Lancajier. 

Ifabel Robey, 

Hus at one time may you behold Wit- 
ches of all forts from many places in this 
Countie of Lancafter which now may 
lawfully bee faid to abound afmuch in 
Witches of diuers kindes as Seminaries, 
Iefuites, and Papists. Here then is the laft that came to 
act her part in this lamentable and wofull Tragedie, 
wherein his Maieftie hath loft fo many Subjects, Mo- 
thers their Children, Fathers their Friends, and Kinf- 
folkes the like whereof hath not beene fet forth in any 
age. What hath the Kings Maieftie written and publi- 
flied in his Dcemonologie, by way of premonition and 
preuention, which hath not here by the firft or laft 

T 2 beene 

The Arraignement and Triall 

beene executed, put in practife or difcouered ? What 
Witches haue euer vpon their Arraignement and Trial 
made fuch open liberall and voluntarie declarations of 
their Hues, and fuch confeflions of their offences: The 
manner of their attempts and their bloudie practifes, 
their meetings, confultations and what not ? There- 
fore I fhall now conclude with this Ifabel Robey who is 
now come to her triall. 

This Ifabel Robey Prifoner in the Caftle at Lancafter 
being brought to the Barre before the great Seat of Iu- 
ftice was there according to the former order and courfe 
Indicted and Arraigned, for that fhee Fellonioufly 
had practifed, exercifed and vfed her Deuilifh and wic- 
ked Artes called Witchcrafts, Inchantments, Charmes and 

Vpon her Arraignment to this Indictment fhe plea- 
ded not guiltie, and for the triall of her life, put her 
felfe vpon God and her Countrie. 

So as now the Gentlemen of the Iurie of life and 
death ftand charged with her as with others. 

The Euidence againji Ifabel Robey 
Prifoner at the Barre. 


of Witches at Lancqjier. 

The Examination of Peter Chad- 

docko/ Windle, in the Countie of Lancqjier : Taken at 
W indie afore/aid, the 12. day of Iuly 1612. Anno Reg. 
Regis I a c o b i, Anglise, &c. decimo, & Scotise xlv. 

Sir Thomas Gerrard Knight, and Barronet. One 
of his Maiesties lustices of the Peace within the faid 

THe faid Examinate vpon his Oath faith, That be- 
fore his Marriage hee heard fay that the faid Ifabel 
Robey was not pleafed that hee fhould marrie his now 
wife : whereupon this Examinate called the faid Ifabel 
Witch, and faid that hee did not care for her. Then 
within two dayes next after this Examinate was fore 
pained in his bones : And this Examinate hauing occafi- 
on to meete Mafter Iohn Hawarden at Peafeley Crone, 
wifhed one Thomas Lyon to goe thither with him, 
which they both did fo ; but as they came home-wards, 
they both were in euill cafe. But within a fliort time af- 
ter, this Examinate and the faid Thomas Lyon were both 
very well amended. 

And this Examinate further faith, that about foure 
yeares laft pail, his now wife was angrie with the faid 
Isabel, fhee then being in his houfe, and his faid Wife 
thereupon went out of the houfe, and prefently after 
that the faid Ifabel went likewife out of the houfe not 
well pleafed, as this Examinate then did thinke, and pre- 
fently after vpon the fame day, this Examinate with his 
faid wife working in the Hay, a paine and a ftarknene fell 
into the necke of this Examinat which grieued him very 

T 3 fore; 

The Arraignement and Triall 

fore; wherupo this Examinat sent to one lames a Glouer, 
which then dwelt in Windle, and defired him to pray 
for him, and within foure or fiue dayes next after this 
Examinate did mend very well. Neuertheleffe this 
Examinate during the fame time was very fore pained, 
and fo thirftie withall, and hot within his body, that hee 
would haue giuen any thing hee had, to haue flaked his 
thirft, hauing drinke enough in the houfe, and yet could 
not drinke vntill the time that the faid lames the Glouer 
came to him, and this Examinate then faid before the 
faid Glouer, I would to God that I could drinke, where 
upon the faid Glouer faid to this Examinate, take that 
drinke, and in the name of the Father, the Sonne, and the 
Holy Ghost, drinke it, faying; The Deuill and Witches 
are not able to preuaile againft God and his Word, 
whereupon this Examinate then tooke the glaffe of 
drinke, and did drinke it all, and afterwards mended ve- 
ry well, and fo did continue in good health, vntill our 
Ladie day in Lent was twelue moneth or thereabouts, 
fmce which time this Examinate faith, that hee hath 
beene fore pained with great warch in his bones, and all 
his limmes, and fo yet continueth, and this Examinate 
further faith, that his faid warch and paine came to him 
rather by meanes of the faid Isabel Robey, then other- 
wife, as he verily thinketh. 


of Witches at Lancqfter. 

The Examination of Iane Wilkin- 
son, Wife o/Francis Wilkinson, of Windle a- 
forefaid : Taken before the faid Sir Thomas Ger- 
rard, Knight and Barronet, the day and place of or ef aid. 
Againjl the faid Isabel Robey. 

THe faid Examinate vpon her oath faith, that vpon a 
time the faid Ifabel Robey asked her milke, and fhee 
denied to giue her any : And afterwards fhee met the 
faid Ifabel> whereupon this Examinate waxed afraid of 
her, and was then prefently fick, and fo pained that fhee 
could not Hand, and the next day after this Examinate 
going to Warrington, was fuddenly pinched on her 
Thigh as fhee thought, with foure fingers & a Thumbe 
twice together, and thereupon was ficke, in fo much as 
fhee could not get home but on horfe-backe, yet soone 
after fhee did mend. 

The Examination of Margaret 

Lyon wife o/ Thomas Lyon the yonger, of 

Windle afwefaid : Taken before the faid Sir Thomas 

Gerrard, Knight and Barronet, the day and place a- 

forefaid. Againjl the faid Isabel Robey. 

THe faid Margaret Lyon vpon her Oath faith, that 
vpon a time Ifabel Robey came into her houfe and 
faid that Peter Chaddock fhould neuer mend vntill he had 
asked her forgiueneffe ; and that fhee knew hee would 
neuer doe : whereupon this Examinate faid, how doe 


The Arraignement and Triall 

you know that, for he is a true Chriftian, and hee would 
aske all the world forgiueneffe ? then the faid Isabel laid, 
that is all one, for hee will neuer aske me forgiueneffe, 
therefore hee fhall neuer mend ; And this Examinate 
further faith, that fhee being in the houfe of the faid Pe- 
ter Chaddock, the wife of the faid Peter, who is God- 
Daughter of the faid Ifabel, and hath in times paft vfed 
her companie much, did affirme, that the faid Peter was 
now fatisfied, that the faid Ifabel Robey was no Witch, 
by fending to one Halfeworths, which they call a wife- 
man, and the wife of the faid Peter then faid, to abide 
vpon it, I thinke that my Hufband will neuer mend 
vntill hee haue asked her forgiueneffe, choofe him 
whether hee will bee angrie or pleafed, for this is my 
opinion : to which he anfwered, when he did need to 
aske her forgiueneffe, he would, but hee thought hee 
did not need, for any thing hee knew : and yet this 
Examinate further faith, That the faid Peter Chaddock 
had very often told her, that he was very afraid that the 
faid Ifabel had done him much hurt ; and that he being 
fearefull to meete her, he hath turned backe at fuch time 
as he did meet her alone, which the faid Ifabel hath fmce 
then affirmed to be true, faying, that hee the faid Peter 
did turne againe when he met her in the Lane. 


of Witches at Lancafter. 

The Examination of Margaret 
Parre wife o/Hvgh Parre of Windle aforefaid, 
Taken before the faid Sir Thomas Gerard 
Knight and Baronet, the day and place aforefaid. Againjl 
the faid Isabel Robey. 

THe faid Examinate vpon her oath faith, that vpon 
a time, the faid Ifabel Robey came to her houfe, and 
this Examinate asked her how Peter Chaddock did, And 
the faid Ifabel anfwered fhee knew not, for fhee went 
not to fee, and then this Examinate asked her how 
lane Wilkinfon did, for that fhe had beene lately ficke and 
fufpected to haue beene bewitched : then the faid Ifabel 
faid twice together, I haue bewitched her too : and then 
this Examinate faid that fhee trufted fhee conld bleife 
her felfe from all Witches and defied them; and then 
the faid Ifabel faid twice together, would you defie me ? & 
afterwards the faid Ifabel went away not well pleafed. 

Here the Gentlemen of the laft Iurie of Life and 
Death hauing taken great paines, the time being farre 
fpent, and the number of the Prifoners great, returned 
into the Court to deliuer vp their Verdict againft them 
as folio weth. viz. 

The Verdict of Life and 


Ho vpon their Oathes found the faid Ifabel Ro- 
bey guiltie of the Fellonie by Witch-craft, con- 

V tained 

The Arraignement and Triall 

tained in the Indictment againft her. And Margaret 
Pearfon guiltie of the offence by Witch-craft, contained 
in the Indictment againft her. 

Whereupon Mafter Couell was commaunded by the 
Court in the afternoone to bring forth all the Prifoners 
that flood Conuicted, to receiue their Iudgment of Life 
and Death. 

For his Lordfhip now intended to proceed to a finall 
difpatch of the Pleas of the Crowne. And heere endeth 
the Arraignement and Triall of the Witches at Lan- 

THus at the length haue we brought to perfection 
this intended Difcouery of Witches, with the Ar- 
raignement and Triall of euery one of them in order, 
by the helpe of Almightie God, and this Reuerend 
Iudge ; the Lanterne from whom I haue received light 
to direct me in this courfe to the end. And as in the be- 
ginning, I prefented vnto their view a Kalender contai- 
ning the names of all the witches : So now I fhall pre- 
fent vnto you in the conclufion and end, fuch as ftand 
conuicted, and come to the Barre to receiue the iudge- 
ment of the Law for their offences, and the proceedings 
of the Court againft fuch as were acquitted, and found 
not guiltie : with the religious Exhortation of this Ho- 
norable Iudge, as eminent in gifts and graces, as in place 
and preeminence, which I may lawfully affirme with- 
out bafe flattery (the canker of all honeft and worthie 
minds) drew the eyes and reuerend refpect of all that 
great Audience prefent, to heare their Iudgement, and 
the end of thefe proceedings. 


of Witches at Lancafter. 
The Prisoners being brought to the Barre. 

THe Court commanded three iblemne Proclamati- 
ons for tilence, vntill Iudgement for Life and Death 
were giuen. 

Whereupon I prefented to his Lordfhip the 

names of the Prifoners in order, which 

were now to receiue their 


V2 The 

The Arraignement and Triall 

^f The names of the Prifoners at the 

Barre to receiue their Judgement 
of Life and Death. 

Anne Whittle^ alias 

Elizabeth Deuice. 

James Deuice. 

Anne Redferne. 

Alice Nutter. 

Katherine Hewet^ 

John Bulcock. 

Jane Bulcock. 

Alizon Deuice. 

Ifabel Robey. 




Sir Edward Bromley, Knight, one 

of his Maiesties Tustices of A/size at Lan- 

cafter vpon the Witches contacted, 

as followeth. 

Here is no man alkie more vnwilling to pro- 
nounce this wofull and heauy Iudgement a- 
gainft you, then my felfe: and if it were poj si- 
dle, I would to God this cup might paffe from 
me. Butjince it is otherwife prouided, that af- 
ter all proceedings of the Law, there muft be a Iudgement ; 
and the Execution of that Iudgement muft fucceed and fol- 
low in due time: I pray you haue patience to receiue that which 
the Law doth lay vpon you. You of all people haue the leaft 
caufe to complaine: Jince in the Tridll of your Hues there hath 
beene great care and paines taken, and much time fpent : and 
very few or none of you, but ftand conuicted vpon your owne 
voluntarie confefsions and Examinations, Ex ore proprio. 
Few Witnejfes examined againft you, but fuch as were pre- 
fent, and parties in your AJfemblies. Nay I may further 
affirme, What perfons of your nature and condition, euer 
were Arraigned and Tried with more folemnitie, had more 
libertie giuen to pleade or anfwere to euerie particular point 
of Euidence againft you f In conclufion fuch hath beene the 

V 3 general! 

The Arraignement and Triall 

generall care of all, that had to deale with you, that you haue 
neither caufe to be offended in the proceedings of the Iujlices, 
that firji tooke paines in thefe bufineffes, nor with the Court 
that hath had great care to giue nothing in euidence against 
you, but matter of fact ; Sufficient matter vpon Record, and 
not to induce or leade the Iurie tofinde any one of you guiltie 
vpon matter of fufpition or prefumption, nor with the wit- 
neffes who haue beene tried, as it were in the fire : Nay, you 
cannot denie but must confeffe what eoctraordinarie meanes 
hath beene vfed to make triall of their euidence, and to difcouer 
the leaft intended practice in any one of them, to touch your 
Hues vniujlly. 

As you Jland Jimply (your offences and bloudie practifes 
not confidered) your fall ivould rather moue compafsion, then 
ewafperate any man. For whom would not the ruine of fo 
many poore creatures at one time, touch, as in apparance Jimple, 
and of little vnderjlanding f 

But the bloud of thofe innocent children, and others his 
Maiejlies Subiects, whom cruelly and barbaroufly you haue 
murdered, and cut off, with all the reft of your offences, hath 
cryed out vnto the Lord againft you, and follicited for fatisfa- 
ction and reuenge, and that hath brought this heauie iudge- 
ment vpon you at this time. 

It is therefore now time no longer wilfully to ftriue, both 
againft the prouidence of God, and the Iuftice of the Land : 
the more you labour to acquit your felues, the more euident 
and apparant you make your offences to the World. And vn- 
pofsible it is that they Jhall either profper or continue in this 
World, or receiue reward in the next, that are ftained with fo 
much innocent bloud. 

The worft then I wijh to you, ftanding at the Barre con- 
tacted, to receiue your Iudgement, is, Remorse, and true Re- 

of Witches at Lancajler. 

pentance, for the fafegard oft/our Soules, and after, an hum- 
ble, penitent, and heartie acknowledgement of your grie- 
vous Jinnes and offences committed both against God 
and Man. 

Firft, yeeld humble and heartie thankes to Almightie 
God for taking hold of you in your beginning, and making 
flay of your intended bloudie practifes ( although God 
knoives there is too much done alreadie) which would in time 
haue cast fo great a weight of Iudgement vpon your 

Then praife God that it pleafed him not to furprize or 
ftrike you fuddenly, euen in the execution of your bloudie 
Murthers, and in the middest of your wicked practifes, but 
hath giuen you time, and takes you away by a iudiciall courfe 
and triall of the Law. 

Laft of all, craue pardon of the World, and efpecially of all 
fuch as you haue iuftly offended, either by tormenting them- 
felues, children, or friends, murder of their kinsfolks, or loffe 
of any their goods. 

And for leaning to future times the prejident of fo many 
barbarous and bloudie murders, with fuch meetings, practifes, 
confutations, and meanes to execute reuenge, being the grea- 
teft part of your comfort in all your actions, which may inftruct 
others to hold the like courfe, or fall in the like fort : 

It only remaines I pronounce the Iudgement of the Court 
againft you by the Kings authoritie, which is ; You fhall all 
goe from hence to the Caftle, from whence you came ; 
from thence you fhall bee carried to the place of Execu- 
tion for this Countie : where your bodies fhall bee han- 
ged vntill you be dead ; And God Have Mercie 
Vpon Yovr Sovles; For your comfort in this 
world I fhall commend a learned and worthie Preacher 


The Arraignement and Triall 

to inftruct you, and prepare you, for an other World : 
All I can doe for you is to pray for your Repentance in 
this World, for the fatisfaction of many ; And forgiue- 
neffe in the next world, for sauing of your Soules. And 
God graunt you may make good vfe of the time you 
haue in this world, to his glorie and your owne com- 

Margaret Pearfon. 

THe Iudgement of the Court againft you, is, You 
fhall ftand vpon the Pillarie in open Market, at Cli- 
theroe, Paddiham, Whalley, and Lancaster, foure Market 
dayes, with a Paper vpon your head, in great Letters, 
declaring your offence, and there you fhall confeffe 
your offence, and after to remaine in Prifon for one 
yeare without Baile, and after to be bound with good 
Sureties, to be of the good behauiour. 


of Witches at Lancajler. 

To the Prifoners found not guiltie 
by the Ivries. 

Elizabeth Aftley. 
yohn Ramfden. 
Alice Gray. 
Ifabel Sidegraues. 
Lawrence Hay. 

you that are found not guiltie, and are by the 
Law to bee acquited, prefume no further of your 
Innocencie then you hauejuji caufe : for although 
it pleafed God out of his Mercie, to f pare you at 
this time, yet without queflion there are amongst 
you, that are as deepe in this Action, as any of them that are con- 
demned to die for their offences : The time is now for you to for- 
fake the Deuill : Remember how, and in what fort hee hath dealt 
with all of you : make good vfe of this great mercie and fa- 
uour : and pray unto God you fall not againe : For great is 
your happinejfe to haue time in this World, to prepare your 
felues againjl the day when youjhall appear e before the Great 
Iudge of all. 

Notwithflanding, the iudgement of the Court, is, You 
fhall all enter Recognizances with good fufficient Suer- 
ties, to appeare at the next Aflizes at Lancafter, and in 
the meane time to be of the good behauiour. All I can 
fay to you : 

X Iennet 

The Arraignement and Triall 

Jennet Bierley, 

Ellen Bierley, 

Jane Southworth^ i s , That God 
hath deliuered you beyond expectation, I pray God 
you may vse this mercie and fauour well ; and take heed 
you fall not hereafter : And fo the Court doth order 
you fhall be deliuered. 

What more can bee written or publifhed of the pro- 
ceedings of this honourable Court : but to conclude with 
the Execution of the Witches, who were executed the 
next day following at the common place of Execution, 
neare vnto Lancafter. Yet in the end glue mee leaue to 
intreate fome fauour that haue beene afraid to fpeake 
vntill my worke were finifhed. If I haue omitted any 
thing materiall, or publiihed any thing imperfect, ex- 
cufe me for that I haue done : It was a worke impofed 
vpon me by the Iudges, in refpect I was fo wel inftructed 
in euery particular. In haft I haue vndertaken to finifh it 
in a bufie Tearme amongft my other imploiments. 

My charge was to publifh the proceedings of Iuftice, 
and matter of Fact, wherein I wanted libertie to write 
what I would, and am limited to fet forth nothing a- 
gainft them, but matter vpon Record, euen in their 
owne Countrie tearmes, which may seeme ftrange. And 
this I hope will giue good fatisfaction to fuch as vnder- 
ftand how to iudge of a bufmene of this nature. Such 
as haue no other imploiment but to queftion other 
mens Actions, I leaue them to cenfure what they pleafe, 
It is no part of my profeffion to publifh any thing in 


of Witches at Lancqfter. 

print, neither can I paint in extraordinarie tearmes. But 
if this difcouerie may feme for your instruction, I fhall 
thinke my felfe very happie in this Seruice, and fo leaue 
it to your generall cenfure. 

Da veniam Ignoto non difplicuijfe meretur, 
Feftinatjludys qui placui/fe tibi. 




Iennet Preston, Of 


in the Countie of Yorke. 

At the Afsifes and Generall Gaole- 

Deliuerie holden at the Cajile of Yorke 

in the Countie of Yorke, the xxvij. day of 

Iuly lait paft, AnnoRegni Regis Iacobi 

Aug lice, Sfc. Decimo , <§r Scotice 

quadragefimo quinto. 


Sir Iames Altham Knight, one 

of the Barons of his Maiefties Court of Exchequer ; 

and Sir Edward Bromley Knight, another of 

the Barons of his Maiefties Court of Exchequer ; 

his Maiefties Iuftices of Affife, Oyer and Terminer, 

and generall Gaole-Deliuerie, in the Circuit 

of the North-parts. 


Printed by W. STANSBYfor Iohn Barnes, and 

are to be fold at his Shoppe neere Hol- 

borne Conduit. 1 6 1 2 . 


and Triall of Iennet Pres- 
ton 0/ Gisborne in Crauen, in the Countie of Yorke, at 
the Afsifes and generall Gaole-deliuerie, holden at the 
Cajlle of Yorke, in the Countie of YorJce, the feuen and 
twentieth day of Iuly lajl pajl. Anno Regni Regis Ia- 
cobi Anglise &c. Decimo & Scotise xlvj. 

Jennet Preston, 

ANY haue vndertaken to write 
great difcourfes of Witches and 
many more difpute and fpeake of 
them. And it were not much if as 
many wrote of them as could 
write at al, to fet forth to the world 
the particular Rites and Secrets of 
their vnlawfull Artes, with their in- 
finite and wonderfull practifes which many men little 
feare till they feaze vpon them. As by this late won- 
derfull difcouerie of Witches in the Countie of Lanca- 
fter may appeare, wherein I find fuch apparant matter 
to fatisfie the World, how dangerous and malitious a 


The Arraignement and Triall 

Witch this Iennet Prefton was, How vnfit to Hue, ha- 
iring once fo great mercie extended to her: And againe 
to reuiue her practifes, and returne to her former courfe 
of life ; that I thinke it neceffarie not to let the memo- 
rie of her life and death die with her ; But to place her 
next to her fellowes and to fet forth the Arraignement 
Triall and Conviction of her, with her offences for 
which fhe was condemned and executed. 

And although fhee died for her offence before the 
reft, I yet can afford her no better place then in the end 
of this Booke in refpect the proceedings was in an other 
Countie ; 

You that were hufband to this Iennet Prefton ; 
her friends and kinsfolkes, who haue not beene fparing 
to deuife fo fcandalous a flander out of the malice of 
your hearts, as that fhee was malicioufly profecuted by 
Master Lister and others; Her life vniuftly taken away 
by practife; and that (euen at the Gallowes where fhee 
died impenitent and void of all feare or grace) fhe died 
an Innocent woman, becaufe fhe would confeffe no- 
thing: You I fay may not hold it ftrange, though at 
this time, being not only moued in confcience, but di- 
rected, for example fake, with that which I haue to re- 
port of her, I fuffer you not to wander any further, but 
with this fhort difcourfe oppofe your idle conceipts a- 
ble to feduce others: And by Charmes of Imputations 
and flander, laid vpon the Iuflice of the Land, to cleare 
her that was iuftly condemned and executed for her of- 
fence ; That this Iennet Preston was for many yeares 
well thought of and efteemed by Mafter Lister who 
afterwards died for it Had free acceffe to his houfe, 
kind refpect and entertainment; nothing denied her fhe 


of Witches at Yorke. 

ltood in need of. Which of you that dwelleth neare 
them in Crauen but can and will witneffe it ? which 
might haue incouraged a Woman of any good condi- 
tion to haue runne a better courfe. 

The fauour and goodneffe of this Gentleman Ma- 
iler Lifter now liuing, at his firft entrance after the death 
of his Father extended towards her, and the reliefe fhe 
had at all times, with many other fauours that fuccee- 
ded from time to time, are fo palpable and euident to 
all men as no man can denie them. Thefe were fuffici- 
ent motiues to haue perfwaded her from the murder of 
fo good a friend. 

But fuch was her execrable Ingratitude, as euen this 
grace and goodneffe was the caufe of his miferable and 
vntimely death. And euen in the beginning of his 
greateft fauours extended to her, began fhee to worke 
this mifchiefe, according to the courfe of all Witches. 

This Iennet Preston, whofe Arraignment and Triall, 
with the particular Euidence againft her I am now to 
fet forth vnto you, one that liued at Gilborne in Crauen, 
in the Countie of Yorke, neare Mafter Lister of Weft- 
bie, againft whom fhe practifed much mifchiefe; for ha- 
uing cut off Thomas Lister Esquire, father to this gentle- 
man now liuing, fhee reuenged her felfe vpon his fonne: 
who in fhort time receiued great loffe in his goods and 
cattell by her meanes. 

Thefe things in time did beget fufpition, and at the 
Affizes and Generall Gaole deliuerie holden at the Ca- 
ftle of Yorke in Lent laft paft, before my Lord Bromley, 
fhee was Indicted and Arraigned for the murder of a 
Child of one Dodg-fonnes, but by the fauour and merci- 
full confideration of the Iurie thereof acquited. 

Y But 

The Arraignement and Trial! 

But this fauour and mercie was no fooner extended 
towardes her, and fhee fet at libertie, But fhee began to 
practife the utter mine and ouerthrow of the name and 
bloud of this Gentleman. 

And the better to execute her mifchiefe and wicked 
intent, within foure dayes after her deliuerance out of 
the Caftle at Yorke , went to the great Affembly of 
Witches at Malking-Tower vpon Good-friday laft : to 
praye aide and helpe, for the murder of Matter Lister, in 
refpect he had profecuted againft her at the fame Afli- 

Which it pleafed God in his mercie to difcouer, and 
in the end, howfoeuer he had blinded her, as he did the 
King of ^Egypt and his Inftruments, for the brighter 
euidence of his own powerfull glory : Yet by a Iudiciall 
courfe and triall of the Law, cut her off, and fo deliue- 
red his people from the danger of her Deuilifh and wic- 
ked practifes : which you fhall heare againft her, at her 
Arraignement and Triall, which I fhall now fet forth 
to you in order as it was performed, with the wonder- 
full fignes and tokens of God, to fatisfie the Iurie to 
finde her guiltie of this bloudie murther, committed 
foure yeares fince. 


of Witches at Yorke. 


THis lennet Pre/Ion being Prifoner in the Caftle at 
Yorke, and indicted, for that fhee fellonioufly had 
practifed, vfed, and exercifed diuerfe wicked and deuil- 
lifh Arts, called Witchcrafts, Inchauntments, Charmes, 
and Sorceries, in and vpon one Thomas Lister of Weftby 
in Crauen, in the Countie of Yorke Efquire, and by 
force of the fame Witchcraft fellonioufly the faid Tho- 
mas Lister had killed, Contra Pacem fyc. beeing at the 
Barre, was arraigned. 

To this Indictment vpon her Arraignement, fhee 
pleaded not guiltie, and for the Triall of her life put her 
felfe vpon God and her Countrey. 

Whereupon my Lord Altham commaunded Mafter 
Sheriffe of the Countie of Yorke, in open Court to re- 
turne a Iurie of sufficient Gentlemen of vnderftanding, 
to pafle betweene our Soueraigne Lord the Kings Ma- 
jestie and her, and others the Prifoners, vpon their Hues 
and deaths ; who were afterwards fworne, according to 
the forme and order of the Court, the prifoner being 
admitted to her lawfull challenge. 

Which being done, and the Prifoner at the Barre to 
receiue her Tryall, Mafter Heyber, one of his Maiefties 
Iuftices of Peace in the fame County, hauing taken great 
paines in the proceedings againft her ; and being beft in- 
ftructed of any man of all the particular points of Eui- 
dence againft her, humbly prayed, the witneffes hereaf- 
ter following might be examined againft her, and the fe- 
uerall Examinations, taken before Mafter Nowel, and cer- 
tified, might openly bee publifhed againft her ; which 
hereafter follow in order, viz. 

Y 2 The 

The Arraixjnement and Triall 

The Euidence for the Kings Maiejlie 

Iennet Preston, Prifoner at the Barre. 

HEreupon were diuerfe Examinations taken and 
read openly againft her, to induce and fatisfie the 
Gentlemen of the Iurie of Life and Death, to finde fhe 
was a Witch ; and many other circumftances for the 
death of M. Lister. In the end Anne Robin/on and others 
were both examined, who vpon their Oathes declared 
againft her, That M. Lister lying in great extremitie, 
vpon his death bedde, cried out vnto them that ftood 
about him; that Iennet Prejlon was in the house, looke 
where fhee is, take hold of her: for Gods fake fhut the 
doores, and take her, fhee cannot efcape away. Looke 
about for her, and lay hold on her, for fhee is in the 
houfe : and fo cryed very often in his great paines, to 
them that came to vifit him during his fickneffe. 

Anne Robinfon^ 

Thomas Lifter^ 

Being examined further, they both gaue this in eui- 
dence againft her, That when Mafter Lister lay vpon his 
death-bedde, hee cryed out in great extremitie ; Iennet 
Preston lyes heauie vpon me, Prestons wife lies heauie 
vpon me ; helpe me, helpe me : and lb departed, crying 
out againft her. 


of Witches at Yorke. 

Thefe, with many other witneffes, were further exa- 
mined, and depofed, That Iennet Preston, the Prifoner 
at the Barre, being brought to M. Lister after hee was 
dead, & layd out to be wound vp in his winding-fheet, 
the faid Iennet Preston comming to touch the dead 
corpes, they bled frefh bloud prefently, in the prefence 
of all that were there prefent: Which hath euer beene 
held a great argument to induce a Iurie to hold him 
guiltie that ftiall be accufed of Murther, and hath fel- 
dome, or neuer, fayled in the Tryall. 

But thefe were not alone: for this wicked and bloud- 
thirftie Witch was no fooner deliuered at the Aflifes 
holden at Yorke in Lent laft paft, being indicted, arraig- 
ned, and by the fauor and mercie of the Iurie found not 
guiltie, for the murther of a Child by Witch-craft : but 
vpon the Friday following, beeing Good-Friday, fhee 
rode in haft to the great meeting at Malking-Tower, 
and there prayed aide for the murther of M. Thomas 
Lister: as at large fhall appeare, by the feuerall Exami- 
nations hereafter following; fent to thefe Aflifes from 
Matter Nowel and other his Maiefties Iuftices of Peace 
in the Countie of Lancafter, to be giuen in euidence a- 
gainft her, vpon her Triall, viz. 

Y 3 The 

The Arraignement and Trial! 

The Examination and Euidence of 
Iames Device, of the Forrest o/Pendk, in the Coun- 
tie of Lancafter, Labourer, taken at the houfe o/Iames 
Wilsey, of the Forrejl of Pendle in the Countie of 
Lancafter, the feuen and twentieth day of Aprill, Anno 
Reg. Regis Tacobi Angliae, &c. Decimo ac Scotise 
quadragefimo quinto. 

Roger Now el and Nicholas Bane- 
ster, Equires, two of his Maiefties Iujiices of the Peace 
within the Countie of Lancafter, viz. 

THis Examinate faith, That vpon Good-Friday laft 
about twelue of the clocke in the day-time, there 
dined in this Examinates faid mothers houfe a number 
of perfons, whereof three were men, with this Exami- 
nate, and the reft women: and that they met there for 
thefe three caufes following (as this Examinates faid 
mother told this Examinate) : Firft was for the naming 
of the Spirit, which Alizon Deuice, now Prifoner at 
Lancafter, had, but did not name him, becaufe fliee 
was not there. The fecond caufe was for the deliuery 
of his faid Grand-mother, this Examinates faid fifter 
Alizon, the faid Anne Chattox, and her daughter Red- 
feme: Killing the Gaoler at Lancafter; and before the 
next Affizes to blow vp the Caftle there ; to that end 
the aforefaid Prifoners might by that meanes make an 
efcape and get away. All which this Examinate then 
heard them conferre of. And the third caufe was, for 
that there was a woman dwelling in Gifburne Parifh, 
who came into this Examinates faid Grand-mothers 


of Witches at Yorke. 

houfe, who there came, and craued afliftance of the reft 
of them that were then there, for the killing of Mafter 
Lifter of Weftby : becaufe, as fhe then faid, he had borne 
malice vnto her, and had thought to haue put her away 
at the last Aflizes at Yorke ; but could not. And then 
this Examinat heard the faid woman fay, that her power 
was not ftrong enough to doe it her felfe, being now 
leffe then before time it had beene. 

And he alfo further faith, that the faid Pre/ions wife 
had a Spirit with her like unto a white Foale, with a 
blacke-fpot in the forehead. And further, this Examinat 
faith, That fmce the faid meeting, as aforefaid, this Exa- 
minate hath beene brought to the wife of one Prejlon in 
Gifburne Parifh aforefaid, by Henry Hargreiues of Gold- 
fhey, to fee whether fhee was the woman that came a- 
mongft the faid Witches, on the faid laft Good-Friday, 
to craue their aide and afliftance for the killing of the 
faid Mafter Lifter : and hauing had full view of her ; hee 
this Examinate confefleth, That fhee was the felfe-fame 
woman which came amongft the faid Witches on the 
faid laft Good-Friday, for their aide for the killing of the 
faid Mafter Lifter ; and that brought the Spirit with her, 
in the fhape of a White Foale, as aforefaid. 

And this Examinate further faith, That all the faid 
Witches went out of the faid houfe in their owne 
fhapes and likenefles, and they all, by that they were 
forth of the doores, were gotten on horfe-backe like vn- 
to Foales, fome of one colour, some of another, and 
Prejions wife was the laft ; and when fhe got on horfe- 
backe, they all prefently vanifhed out of this Examinats 
fight : and before their faid parting away, they all ap- 
pointed to meete at the faid Prejions wifes houfe that 


The Arraignement and Triall 

day twelue-month ; at which time the faid Preftons wife 
promifed to make them a great feaft ; and if they had oc- 
cafion to meet in the meane time, then fhould warning 
bee giuen that they all fhould meete vpon Romles- 
Moore. And this Examinate further faith, That at the 
faid feaft at Malking-Tower, this Examinat heard them 
all giue their confents to put the faid Mafter Thomas Li- 
fter of Weftby to death: and after Mafter Lifter fhould 
be made away by Witchcraft, then al the faid Witches 
gaue their confents to ioyne altogether to hancke Ma- 
fter Leonard Lifter, when he fhould come to dwell at the 
Sowgill, and fo put him to death. 

The Examination of Henrie Har- 
greives of Goldfhey-booth, in the Forrejl of 
Pendle, in the Countie of Lancqfter Yeoman, taken the 
fifth day of May, Anno Reg. Regis Iacobi Angliae, 
&c. Decimo, ac Scocise quadragefimo quinto. 

Roger Now el, Nicholas Bannester, 
and Robert Holden, Esquires ; three of his 
Maiejiies Lujiices of Peace within the faid Countie. 

THis Examinat vpon his oath faith, That Anne Whit- 
tle, alias Chattow, confeffed vnto him, that fhe know- 
eth one Preftons wife neere Gifburne, and that the faid 
Prejions wife fhould haue beene at the faid feast, vpon 
the faid Good-Friday, and that fhee was an ill woman, 
and had done Mafter Lifter of Weftby great hurt. 


of Witches at Yorke. 

The Examination of Elizabeth 
Device, mother of Iames Device, taken befcyre 
Roger Now el and Nicholas Ban ester, 
Esquires, the day and yeare afarefaid, viz. 

THe laid Elizabeth Deuice vpon her Examination con- 
feffeth, That vpon Good-Friday laft, there dined at 
this Examinats houfe, which fhe hath faid are Witches, 
and doth verily thinke them to be Witches; and their 
names are thofe whom Iames Deuice hath formerly spo- 
ken of to be there. 

She alfo confeffeth in all things touching the killing 
of Matter Lifter of Weftby, as the faid Iames Deuice hath 
before confeffed. 

And the laid Elizabeth Deuice also further faith, That 
at the faid meeting at Malking-Tower, as aforefaid, the 
faid Katherine Hewyt and Iohn Bulcock, with all the reft 
then there, gaue their confents, with the faid Preflons 
wife, for the killing of the faid Mafter Lifler. And for 
the killing of the faid Mafter Leonard Lifler, fhe this Ex- 
animate faith in all things, as the faid Iames Deuice hath 
before confeffed in his Examination. 


The Arraignement and Trial! 

The Examination of Iennet De- 
vice, daughter of Elizabeth late wife of Iohn 
Device, ofiheForreJl of Pendle, in the Countie of Lan- 
cqfter, about the age of nine yeares or thereabouts, taken 
the day and yeare aboue-faid : 

Roger Now el and Nicholas Bane- 
ster, Esquires, two of his Maiejlies Iujlices of Peace in 
the Countie of Lancafter. 

THe faid Examinate vpon her Examination faith, 
that vpon Good-friday laft there was about twenty 
perfons, whereof only two were men, to this Examinats 
remembrance, at her faid Grand-mothers houfe, called 
Malking-Tower aforefaid, about twelue of the clocke : 
all which perfons, this Examinates faid mother 
told her were Witches, and that fhe know- 
eth the names of diuers of the faid 


of Witches at Yorke. 

AFter all thefe Examinations, Confeflions, and 
Euidence, deliuered in open Court againft her, 
His Lordship commanded the Iurie to ob- 
ferue the particular circumftances ; firft, Mafter Lister 
in his great extremitie, to complaine hee faw her, and 
requefted them that were by him to lay hold on her. 

After he cried out fhee lay heauie vpon him, euen at 
the time of his death. 

But the Conclufion is of more confequence then all 
the reft, that Iennet Preston being brought to the dead 
corps, they bled frefhly. And after her deliuerance in 
Lent, it is proued fhee rode vpon a white Foale, and was 
prefent in the great affembly at Malkin Tower with the 
Witches, to intreat and pray for aide of them, to kill 
Mafter Lifter, now liuing, for that he had profequuted 
againft her. 

And againft thefe people you may not expect fuch 
direct euidence, fmce all their workes are the workes of 
darkeneffe, no witneffes are prefent to accufe them, 
therefore I pray God direct your confciences. 

After the Gentlemen of the Iurie of Life and Death 

had fpent the moft part of the day, in confideration of 

the euidence againft her, they returned into the 

Court and deliuered vp their Verdict 

of Life and Death. 

Z 2 The 

The Arraignement and Trial! 

The VerdiEl of Life and 

WHo found Iennet Pre/ion guiltie of the fellonie 
and murder by Witch-craft of Thomas Lister, 
Efquire; conteyned in the Indictment againft her, &c. 

Afterwards, according to the courfe and order of the 
Lawes, his Lordihip pronounced Iudgement againft 
her to bee hanged for her offence. And fo the Court a- 

•Ere was the wonderfull difcouerie of this Ien- 
net Prejion, who for fo many yeares had liued 
at Gifborne in Crauen, neare Mafter Lifter: 
one thing more I fhall adde to all thefe par- 
ticular Examinations, and euidence of wit- 
neffes, which I saw, and was prefent in the Court at Lan- 
cafter, when it was done at the Aflizes holden in Auguft 

My Lord Bromley being very fufpicious of the accu- 
fation of Iennet Deuice, the little Wench, commanded 
her to looke vpon the Prifoners that were prefent, and 
declare which of them were prefent at Malkin Tower, 
at the great affembly of Witches vpon Good-Friday 
laft : fhee ' looked vpon and tooke many by the handes, 
and accufed them to be there, and when fhee had accu- 
fed all that were there prefent, fhee told his Lordihip 
there was a Woman that came out of Crauen that was 


of Witches at Yorke. 

amongft the Witches at that Feaft, but fhee faw her not 
amongft the Prifoners at the Barre. 

What a lingular note was this of a Child, amongft 
many to miffe her, that before that time was hanged for 
her offence, which fhee would neuer confeffe or declare 
at her death? here was prefent old Prejlon her hufband, 
who then cried out and went away : being fully fatisfied 
his wife had Iuftice, and was worthie of death. 

To conclude then this prefent difcourfe, I heartilie 
defire you, my louing Friends and Countrie-men, for 
whofe particular inftructions this is added to the former 
of the wonderfull difcouerie of Witches in the Countie 
of Lancafter: And for whofe particular fatisfaction this 
is published ; Awake in time, and suffer not your felues 
to be thus affaulted. 

Confider how barbaroufly this Gentleman hath been 
dealt withall ; and efpecially you that hereafter fhall 
paffe vpon any Iuries of Life and Death, let not your 
conniuence, or rather foolifh pittie, fpare such as these, 
to exequute farther mifchiefe. 

Remember that fhee was no fooner fet at libertie, but 
fhee plotted the ruine and ouerthrow of this Gentle- 
man, and his whole Familie. 

Expect not, as this reuerend and learned Iudge faith, 
fuch apparent proofe againft them, as againft others, 
fmce all their workes, are the workes of darkeneffe : and 
vnleffe it pleafe Almightie God to raife witneffes to ac- 
cufe them, who is able to condemne them ? 

Forget not the bloud that cries out vnto God for re- 
uenge, bring it not vpon your owne heads. 

Neither doe I vrge this any farther, then with this, 
that I would alwaies intreat you to remember, that it is 


The Arraignement and Triall 

as great a crime (as Salomon fayth, Prov. 17.) to con- 
demne the innocent, as to let the guiltie efcape free. 

Looke not vpon things ftrangely alledged, but iudici- 
oufly confider what is juftly proued againft them. 

And that as well all you that were witneffes, prefent 
at the Arraignement and Triall of her, as all other ftran- 
gers, to whome this Difcourfe fhall come, may take ex- 
ample by this Gentlemen to profecute thefe hellifh 
Furies to their end : labor to root them out of the Com- 
monwealth, for the common good of your Countrey. 
The greateft mercie extended to them, is foone for- 

God graunt vs the long and profperous cotinu- 
ance of thefe Honorable and Reuerend Iudges, vnder 
whofe Gouernment we Hue in thefe North parts : for 
we may fay, that God Almightie hath fingled them 
out, and fet him on his Seat, for the defence of Iu- 

And for this great deliuerance, let vs all pray to 

God Almightie, that the memorie of 

thefe worthie Iudges may bee 

bleffed to all Pofte- 





[The references are to the alphabetical letters or signatures at the bottom of each page : 
a is intended for the first and 6 the second page, marked with such letter or signature.] 

Dedication. " The Right Honorable Thomas Lord Knyvet."] Sir Thomas 
Knivet, or Knyvet, Gentleman of the Privy Chamber to James the First, 
was afterwards created Baron of Escricke, in the county of York. He it 
was who was intrusted to search the vaults under the Parliament House, 
and who discovered the thirty-six barrels of gunpowder, and apprehended 
Guido Fawkes, who declared to him, that if he had happened to be within 
the house when he took him, as he was immediately before, he would not 
have failed to blow him up, house and all. (Howell's State Trials, vol. ii., p. 
202.) His courage and conduct on this occasion seem to have recommended 
him to the especial favour of James. Dying without issue, the title of Lord 
Howard of Escrick was conferred on Sir Edward Howard, son of Thomas 
Howard, Earl of Suffolk, who had married the eldest daughter and co-heir 
of Sir H. Knivet ; and, having been enjoyed successively by his two sons, 
ended in his grandson Charles, in the beginning of the last century. It 
must be admitted that the writer has chosen his patron very felicitously. 
Who so fit to have the book dedicated to him as one who had acted so con- 
spicuous a part on the memorable occasion at Westminster? The blowing 
up of Lancaster Castle and good Mr. Covel, by the conclave of witches 
at Malkin's Tower, was no discreditable imitation of the grand metropo- 
litan drama on provincial boards. 

A 2. First Imprimatur. " Ja. Altham, Edw. Bromley?] These two 
judges were Barons of the Court of Exchequer, but neither of them seems to 

A A 


have left a name extraordinarily distinguished for legal learning. Altham 
was one of the assistants named in the commission for the trial of the 
Countess of Somerset for the murder of Sir Thomas Overbury in 1616. 
Bromley appears, from incidental notices contained in the diary of Nicholas 
Assheton, (see Whitaker's Whalley, third edition, page 300,) and other 
sources, to have frequently taken the northern circuit. He was not of the 
family of Lord Chancellor Bromley, but of another stock. 

A 3. Second Imprimatur : " Edward Bromley. I took upon mee to reuise 
and correct it."~\ This revision by the judge who presided at the trial gives 
a singular and unique value and authority to the work. We have no 
other report of any witch trial which has an equal stamp of authenticity. 
How many of the rhetorical flourishes interspersed in the book are the 
property of Thomas Potts, Esquier, and how many are the interpolation of the 
" excellent care " of the worthy Baron, it is scarcely worth while to investi- 
gate. Certainly never were judge and clerk more admirably paired. The 
Shallow on the bench was well reflected in the Master Slender below. 

B a. " The number of them being knowen to exceed all others at any time 
heretofore at one time to be indicted, arraigned, and receiue their tryall."] 
Probably this was the case, at least in England ; but a greater number had 
been convicted before, even in this country, at one time, than were found 
guilty on this occasion, as it appears from Scot, (Discovery of Witchcraft, 
page 543, edition 1584,) that seventeen or eighteen witches were condemned 
at once, at St. Osith, in Essex, in 1576, of whom an account was written by 
Brian Darcy, with the names and colours of their spirits. 

B b. " She was a very old woman, about the age of fourescore"] Dr. 
Henry More would have styled old Demdike " An eximious example of 
Moses, his Mecassephah, the word which he uses in that law, — Thou shalt 
not suffer a witch to live." Margaret Agar and Julian Cox, (see Glanvill's 
Collection of Relations, p. 135, edition 1682,) on whom he dwells with such 
delighted interest, were very inferior subjects to what, in his hands, Eliza- 
beth Sothernes would have made. They had neither of them the finishing 
attribute of blindness, so fearful in a witch, to complete the sketch ; nor 
such a fine foreground for the painting as the forest of Pendle presented ; 
nor the advantage, for grouping, of a family of descendants in which witch- 
craft might be transmitted to the third generation. 


B2«. u Roger Nowell, Esquire."] This busy and mischievous personage 
who resided at Read Hall, in the immediate neighbourhood of Pendle, was 
sheriff of Lancashire in 1610. He married Katherine, daughter of John 
Murton, of Murton, and was buried at Whalley, January 31st, 1623. He 
was of the same family as Alexander Nowell, the Dean of St. Paul's, and 
Lawrence Nowell, the restorer of Saxon literature in England; and tar- 
nished a name which they had rendered memorable, by becoming, appa- 
rently, an eager and willing instrument in that wicked persecution which 
resulted in the present trial. His ill-directed activity seems to have fanned 
the dormant embers into a blaze, and to have given aim and consistency to 
the whole scheme of oppression. From this man was descended, in the 
female line, one whose merits might atone for a whole generation of Roger 
Nowells, the truly noble-minded and evangelical Reginald Heber. 

B 2 b . " Gouldshey,"] so commonly pronounced, but more properly 
Goldshaw, or Goldshaw Booth. 

B 2 b. " The spirit answered, his name was Tibb."] Bernard, who is 
learned in the nomenclature of familiar spirits, gives, in his Guide to 
Grand Jurymen, 1630, 12mo, the following list of the names of the 
more celebrated familiars of English witches. "Such as I have read 
of are these : Mephistophiles, Lucifer, Little Lord, Fimodes, David, Jude, 
Little Robin, Smacke, Litefoote, Nonsuch, Lunch, Makeshift, Swash, 
Pluck, Blue, Catch, White, Callico, Hardname, Tibb, Hiff, Ball, Puss, 
Rutterkin, Dicke, Prettie, Grissil, and Jacke." In the confession of 
Isabel Gowdie, a famous Scotch witch, (in Pitcaime's Trials, vol. iii. 
page 614,) we have the following catalogue of attendant spirits, rather, 
it must be confessed, a formidable band. " The names of our Divellis, 
that waited upon us, ar thes : first, Robert the Jakis ; Sanderis, the 
Read Roaver ; Thomas the Fearie ; Swain, the Roaring Lion ; Thieffe of 
Hell; Wait upon Hirself; Mak Hectour; Robert the Rule; Hendrie 
Laing; and Rorie. We would ken them all, on by on, from utheris. 
Some of theim apeirit in sadd dunn, som in grasse-grein, som in sea-grein, 
and some in yallow." Archbishop Harsnet, in his admirable Declaration of 
Popish Impostures, under the pretence of casting out Devils, 1605, 4to, a 
work unsurpassed for rich humour and caustic wit, clothed in good old 
idiomatic English, has a chapter " on the strange names of these devils," in 
which he observes, (p. 46,) " It is not amiss that you be acquainted with 

aa 2 


these extravagant names of devils, least meeting them otherwise by chance 
you mistake them for the names of tapsters, or juglers." Certainly, 
some of the names he marshalls in array smell strongly of the tavern. 
These are some of them : Pippin, Philpot, Modu, Soforce, Hilco, Smol- 
kin, Hillio, Hiaclito, Lustie HufFe-cap, Killico, Hob, Frateretto, Fliberdi- 
gibbet, Hoberdidance, Tocobatto, and Lustie Jollie Jenkin. 

B 2 b. "About Day-light Gate."] Day-light Gate, i. e. Evening, the down 
gate of daylight. See Promptuarium Parvulorum, (edited by Way for 
the Camden Society,) page 188, "Gate down, or downe gate of the Sunne 
or any other planet." — Occasus. Palgrave gives, "At the sonne gate 
downe ; sur le soleil couchant." 

B 3 a. " The said Deuill did get blood vnder her left arme."] It would 
seem (see Elizabeth Device's Examination afterwards) as if some prelimi- 
nary search were made, in the case of this poor old woman, for the marks 
which were supposed to come by the sucking or drawing of the Spirit or 
Familiar. Most probably her confession was the result of this and other 
means of annoyance and torture employed in the usual unscrupulous 
manner, upon a blind woman of eighty. Of those marks supposed to be 
produced by the sucking of the Spirit or Familiar, the most curious and 
scientific (if the word may be applied to such a subject) account will be 
found in a very scarce tract, which seems to have been unknown to the 
writers on witchcraft. Its title is " A Confirmation and Discovery of 
Witchcraft, containing these several particulars ; That there are Witches 
called bad Witches, and Witches untruly called good or white Witches, 
and what manner of people they be, and how they may be knowne, with 
many particulars thereunto tending. Together with the Confessions of 
many of those executed since May, 1645, in the several Counties hereafter 
mentioned. As also some objections Answered. By John Stearne, now of 
Lawshall, neere Burie Saint Edmunds in SufFolke, sometimes of Manningtree 
in Essex. Pro v. xvii. 15, He that justifieth the wicked, and he that con- 
demneth the just, even they both are an abomination to the Lord. Deut. 
xiii. 14, Thou shall therefore enquire, and make search, and aske diligently 
whether it be truth and the thing certaine. London, Printed by William 
Wilson, dwelling in Little Saint Bartholemews, neere Smithfield, 1648, 
pages 61, besides preface." Stearne, in whom Kemigius and De Lancre 
would have recognized a congenial soul, had a sort of joint commission with 

NOTES. t> 

Hopkins, as Witch-finder, and tells us (see address to Reader) that he had 
been in part an agent in finding out or discovering about 200 witches in 
Essex, Suffolk, Northamptonshire, Huntingtonshire, Bedfordshire, Norfolk* 
Cambridgeshire, and the Isle of Ely. He deals with the subject un- 
doubtedly like a man whose extensive experience and practice had enabled 
him to reduce the matter to a complete system. (See his account of their 
marks, pp. 43 to 50.) He might, like John Kincaid in Tranent, (see 
Pitcairne's Criminal Trials, vol. iii. p. 599,) have assumed the right of 
Common Pricker, i. e. Searcher for the devil's marks, and had his own 
tests, which were infallible. He complains, good man, " that in many 
places I never received penny as yet, nor any am like, notwithstanding I 
have hands for satisfaction, except I should sue ; [he should have sued by 
all means, we might then have had his bill of particulars, which would have 
been curious ;] but many rather fall upon me for what hath been received? 
but I hope such suits will be disannulled, and that where I have been out 
of moneys for Towns in charges and otherwise such course will be taken 
that I may be satisfied and paid with reason." He was doubtless well 
deserving of a recompense, and his neighbours were much to blame if he 
did not receive a full and ample one. Of the latter end of his coadjutor, 
Hopkins, whom Sir Walter Scott (see Somers's Tracts, vol. iii. p. 97, edit. 
1810,) and several other writers represent as ultimately executed himself 
for witchcraft, he gives a very different, and no doubt more correct account ; 
which, singularly enough, has hitherto remained entirely unnoticed. " He 
died peaceably at Manningtree, after a long sicknesse of a consumption, as 
many of his generation had done before him, without any trouble of con- 
science for what he had done, as was falsely reported of him. He was the 
son of a godly minister, and therefore, without doubt, within the Covenant." 
Were not the interests of truth too sacred to be compromised, it might 
seem almost a pity to demolish that merited and delightful retribution which 
Butler's lines have immortalized. 

B 3 a. "I will burne the one of you and hang the other"] The following 
extracts from that fine old play, " The Witch of Edmonton," bear a strong 
resemblance to the scene described in the text. Mother Sawyer, in whom 
the milk of human kindness is turned to gall by destitution, imbittered by 
relentless outrage and insult, and who, driven out of the pale of human 
fellowship, is thrown upon strange and fearful allies, would almost appear 
to be the counterpart of Mother Demdike. The weird sisters of our 

AA 3 


transcendant bard are wild and wonderful creations, but have no close 
relationship to the plain old traditional witch of our ancestors, which is 
nowhere represented by our dramatic writers with faithfulness and truth 
except in the Witch of Edmonton : — 

Enter Elizabeth Sawyer, gathering sticks. 
Saw. And why on me ? why should the envious world 
Throw all their scandalous malice upon me ? 
'Cause I am poor, deform'd, and ignorant, 
And like a bow buckled and bent together, 
By some more strong in mischiefs than myself, 
Must I for that be made a common sink, 
For all the filth and rubbish of men's tongues 
To fall and run into ? Some call me Witch, 
And being ignorant of myself, they go 
About to teach me how to be one ; urging, 
That my bad tongue (by their bad usage made so) 
Forespeaks their cattle, doth bewitch their corn, 
Themselves, their servants, and their babes at nurse. 
This they enforce upon me ; and in part 
Make me to credit it ; and here comes one 
Of my chief adversaries. 

Enter Old Banks. 

Banks. Out, out upon thee, witch ! 

Saw. Dost call me witch ? 

Banks. I do, witch, I do; and worse I would, knew I a name more hateful. 
What makest thou upon my ground ? 

Saw. Gather a few rotten sticks to warm me. 

Banks. Down with them when I bid thee, quickly ; I'll make thy bones rattle in 
thy skin else. 

Saw. You won't, churl, cut-throat, miser ! — there they be ; [ Throws them down.] 
would they stuck across thy throat, thy bowels, thy maw, thy midriff. 

Banks. Say'st thou me so, hag? Out of my ground ! [Beats her. 

Saw. Dost strike me, slave, curmudgeon ! Now thy bones aches, thy joints 
cramps, and convulsions stretch and crack thy sinews ! 

Banks. Cursing, thou hag ! take that, and that. [Beats her f and exit. 

Saw. Strike, do ! — and wither'd may that hand and arm 
Whose blows have lamed me, drop from the rotten trunk ! 
Abuse me ! beat me ! call me hag and witch ! 
What is the name ? where, and by what art learn'd, 
What spells, what charms or invocations ? 
May the thing call'd Familiar be purchased ? 


Saw. Still vex'd ! still tortured ! that curmudgeon Banks 
Is ground of all my scandal ; I am shunn'd 
And hated like a sickness ; made a scorn 
To all degrees and sexes. I have heard old beldams 
Talk of familiars in the shape of mice, 
Rats, ferrets, weasels, and I wot not what, 
That have appear' d, and suck'd, some say, their blood ; 
But by what means they came acquainted with them, 
I am now ignorant. Would some power, good or bad, 
Instruct me which way I might be revenged 
Upon this churl, I'd go out of myself, 
And give this fury leave to dwell within 
This ruin'd cottage, ready to fall with age ! 
Abjure all goodness, be at hate with prayer, 
And study curses, imprecations, 
Blasphemous speeches, oaths, detested oaths, 
Or anything that's ill ; so I might work 
Revenge upon this miser, this black cur, 
That barks and bites, and sucks the very blood 
Of me, and of my credit. 'Tis all one, 
To be a witch, as to be counted one : 
Vengeance, shame, ruin light upon that canker ! 

Enter a Black Dog. 

Dog. Ho ! have I found thee cursing? now thou art 
Mine own. 

Saw. Thine ! what art thou ? 

Dog. He thou hast so often 
Importuned to appear to thee, the devil. 

Saw. Bless me ! the devil ! 

Dog. Come, do not fear ; I love thee much too well 
To hurt or fright thee ; if I seem terrible, 
It is to such as hate me. I have found 
Thy love unfeign'd ; have seen and pitied 
Thy open wrongs, and come, out of my love, 
To give thee just revenge against thy foes. 

Saw. May I believe thee ? 

Dog. To confirm't, command me 
Do any mischief unto man or beast. 
And I'll effect it, on condition 
That, uncompell'd, thou make a deed of gift 
Of soul and body to me. 

Saw. Out, alas ! 
My soul and body ? 


Dog. And that instantly, 
And seal it with thy blood : if thou deniest, 
I'll tear thy body in a thousand pieces. 

Saw. I know not where to seek relief: but shall I, 
After such covenants seal'd, see full revenge 
On all that wrong me ? 

Dog. Ha, ha ! silly woman ! 
The devil is no liar to such as he loves — 
Didst ever know or hear the devil a liar 
To such as he affects ? 

Saw. Then I am thine ; at least so much of me 
As I can call mine own — 

Dog. Equivocations? 
Art mine or no ? speak, or I'll tear — 

Saw. All thine. 

Dog. Seal't with thy blood. 

[She pricks her arm, which he sucks. — Thunder 
and lightning. 
See ! now I dare call thee mine ! 
For proof, command me : instantly I'll run 
To any mischief ; goodness can I none. 

Saw. And I desire as little. There's an old churl, 
One Banks — 

Dog. That wrong'd thee : he lamed thee, call'd thee witch. 

Saw. The same ; first upon him I'd be revenged. 

Dog. Thou shalt ; do but name how ? 

Sate. Go, touch his life. 

Dog. I cannot. 

Saw. Hast thou not vow'd ? Go, kill the slave ! 

Dog. I will not. 

Saw. I'll cancel then my gift. 

Dog. Ha, ha ! 

Saw. Dost laugh ! 
Why wilt not kill him ? 

Dog. Fool, because I cannot. 
Though we have power, know, it is circumscribed, 
And tied in limits : though he be curst to thee, 
Yet of himself, he is loving to the world, 
And charitable to the poor ; now men, that, 
As he, love goodness, though in smallest measure, 
Live without compass of our reach : his cattle 
And corn I'll kill and mildew ; but his life 
(Until I take him, as I late found thee, 
Cursing and swearing) I have no power to touch. 


Saw. Work on his corn and cattle then. 
Dog. I shall. 
The Witch of Edmonton shall see his fall. 

Ford's Plays, edit. 1839, p. 190. 

B 3 a. " Alizon Deuice."] Device is merely the common name Davies 
spelled as pronounced in the neighbourhood of Pendle. 

B 3 b. "Is to make a picture of clay."] 

Hecate. What death is't you desire for Almachildes ? 

Duchess. A sudden and a subtle. 

Hecate. Then I've fitted you. 
Here be the gifts of both ; sudden and subtle : 
His picture made in wax and gently molten 
By a blue fire kindled with dead men's eyes 
Will waste him by degrees. 

Duchess. In what time, prithee ? 

Hecate. Perhaps in a moon's progress. 

Middleton's Witch, edit. 1778, p. 100. 

None of the offices in the Witches rubric had higher classical warrant 
than this method, a favourite one, it appears, of Mother Demdike, but in 
which Anne Redfern had the greatest skill of any of these Pendle witches, 
of victimizing by moulding and afterwards pricking or burning figures of 
clay representing the individual whose life was aimed at. Horace, Lib. i. 
Sat. 8, mentions both waxen and woollen images — 

Lanea et effigies erat altera cerea, &c. 

And it appears from Tacitus, that the death of Germanicus was supposed 
to have been sought by similar practices. By such a Simulachrum, or 
image, the person was supposed to be devoted to the infernal deities. 
According to the Platonists, the effect produced arose from the operation of 
the sympathy and synergy of the Spiritus Mundanus, (which Plotinus calls 
t fieyav ySrjTa, the grand magician,) such as they resolve the effect of the 
weaponsalve and other magnetic cures into. The following is the Note in 
Brand on this part of witchcraft : — 

King James, in his * Dsemonology," book ii., chap. 5, tells us, that "the 'Devil 
teacheth how to make pictures of wax or clay, that, by roasting thereof, the persons 

B B 

10 NOTES. 

that they bear the name of may be continually melted or dried away by continual 

See Servius on the 8th Eclogue of Virgil ; Theocritus, Idyll, ii., 22 ; Hudibras, 
part II., canto ii., 1. 351. 

Ovid says : 

"Devovet absentes, simulachraque cerea figit 
Et miserum tenues in jecur urget acus." 

Heroid. Ep. vi., 1. 91. 

See also " Grafton's Chronicle," p. 587, where it is laid to the charge (among 
others) of Roger Bolinbrook, a cunning necromancer, and Margery Jordane, the 
cunning Witch of Eye, that they, at the request of Eleanor, Duchess of Gloucester, 
had devised an image of wax, representing the king, (Henry the Sixth,) which by 
their sorcery a little and a little consumed ; intending thereby in conclusion to 
waste and destroy the king's person. Shakspeare mentions this, Henry VI., P. II., 
act i., sc. 4. 

It appears, from Strype's "Annals of the Reformation,", vol. i., p. 8, under anno 
1558, that Bishop Jewel, preaching before the queen, said, " It may please your 
grace to understand that witches and sorcerers within these few last years are mar- 
vellously increased within your grace's realm. Your grace's subjects pine away, 
even unto the death ; their colour fadeth, their flesh rotteth, their speech is be- 
numbed, their senses are bereft. I pray God they never practise further than upon 
the subject" " This," Strype adds, * I make no doubt was the occasion of bringing 
in a bill, the next parliament, for making enchantments and witchcraft felony." 
One of the bishop's strong expressions is, " These eyes have seen most evident and 
manifest marks of their wickedness." 

It appears from the same work, vol. iv., p. 6, sub anno 1589, that "one Mrs. Dier 
had practised conjuration against the queen, to work some mischief to her majesty ; 
for which she was brought into question : and accordingly her words and doings 
were sent to Popham, the queen's attorney, and Egerton, her solicitor, by Walsign- 
ham, the secretary, and Sir Thomas Heneage, her vice- chamberlain, for their judg- 
ment, whose opinion was that Mrs. Dier was not within the compass of the statute 
touching witchcraft, for that she did no act, and spake certain lewd speeches tend- 
ing to that purpose, but neither set figure nor made pictures." Ibid., vol. ii., p. 
545, sub anno 1578, Strype says : " Whether it were the effect of magic, or pro- 
ceeded from some natural cause, but the queen was in some part of this year under 
excessive anguish by pains of her teeth, insomuch that she took no rest for divers 
nights, and endured very great torment night and day." 

Andrews, in his "Continuation of Henry's History of Great Britain," 4to, p. 93, 
tells us, speaking of Ferdinand, Earl of Derby, who in the reign of Queen Elizabeth 
died by poison, " The credulity of the age attributed his death to witchcraft. The 
disease was odd, and operated as a perpetual emetic ; and a waxen image, with hair 
like that of the unfortunate earl, found in his chamber, reduced every suspicion to 

NOTES. 11 

" The wife of Marshal d'Ancre was apprehended, imprisoned, and beheaded for a 
witch, upon a surmise that she had inchanted the queen to dote upon her husband ; 
and they say the young king's picture was found in her closet, in virgin wax, with 
one leg melted away. When asked by her judges what spells she had made use of 
to gain so powerful an ascendancy over the queen, she replied, * that ascendancy 
only which strong minds ever gain over weak ones.' " Seward's " Anecdotes of 
some Distinguished Persons," &c. vol. iii., p. 215. 

Blagrave, in his "Astrological Practice of Physick," p. 89, observes that "the way 
which the witches usually take for to afflict man or beast in this kind is, as I con- 
ceive, done by image or model, made in the likeness of that man or beast they in- 
tend to work mischief upon, and by the subtlety of the devil made at such hours 
and times when it shall work most powerfully upon them, by thorn, pin, or needle, 
pricked into that limb or member of the body afflicted." 

This is farther illustrated by a passage in one of Daniel's Sonnets : 

" The slie inchanter, when to work his will 
And secret wrong on some forspoken wight, 
Frames waxe, in forme to represent aright 
The poore unwitting wretch he meanes to kill, 
And prickes the image, framed by magick's skill, 
Whereby to vex the partie day and night." 

Son. 10; from Poems and Somiets annexed to " Astrophil 
and Stella," 4to, 1591. 

Again, in "Diaria, or the Excellent Conceitful Sonnets of H. C," (Henry 
Constable,) 1594 : 

" Witches, which some murther do intend, 
Doe make a picture, and doe shoote at it ; 
And in that part where they the picture hit, 
The parties self doth languish to his end." 

Decad. II., Son. ii. 

Coles, in his "Art of Simpling," &c, p. 66, says that witches "take likewise the 
roots of mandrake, according to some, or, as I rather suppose, the roots of briony, 
which simple folke take for the true mandrake, and make thereof an ugly image, by 
which they represent the person on whom they intend to exercise their witchcraft." 
He tells us, ibid., p. 26, " Some plants have roots with a number of threads, like 
beards, as mandrakes, whereof witches and impostors make an ugly image, giving it 
the form of the face at the top of the root, and leave those strings to make a broad 
beard down to the feet." — Brand's Antiquities, vol. iii. p. 9. 

Ben Johnson has not forgotten this superstition in his learned and fanciful 
Masque of Queens, in which so much of the lore of witchcraft is embodied. 
There are few finer things in English poetry than his 3rd Charm : — 

The owl is abroad, the bat, and the toad, 
And so is the cat-a-mountain, 

bb 2 

12 NOTES. 

The ant and the mole sit both in a hole, 

And the frog peeps out o' the fountain ; 
The dogs they do bay, and the timbrels play, 

The spindle is now a turning ; 
The moon it is red, and the stars are fled, 

But all the sky is a burning : 
The ditch is made, and our nails the spade, 

With pictures full, of wax and of wool; 
Their livers I stick, with needles quick ; 

There lacks but the blood, to make up the flood. 

Quickly, dame, then bring your part in, 

Spur, spur upon little Martin, 

Merrily, merrily, make him sail, 

A worm in his mouth, and a thorn in his tail, 

Fire above, and fire below, 

With a whip in your hand, to make him go. 

Ben Johnson's Works, by Gifford, vol. vii. p. 121. 

Meric Casaubon, who is always an amusing writer, and whose works, 
notwithstanding his appetite for the wonderful, do not merit the total 
oblivion into which they have fallen, is very angry with Jerome Cardan, an 
author not generally given to scepticism, for the hesitation he displays on 
the subject of these waxen images : — 

I know some who question not the power of devils or witches ; yet in this parti- 
cular are not satisfied how such a thing can be. For there is no relation or sym- 
pathy in nature, (saith one, who hath written not many years ago,) between a man 
and his effigies, that upon the pricking of the one the other should grow sick. It is 
upon another occasion that he speaks it ; but his exception reacheth this example 
equally. A wonder to me he should so argue, who in many things hath very well 
confuted the incredulity of others, though in some things too credulous himself. If 
we must believe nothing but what we can reduce to natural, or, to speak more pro- 
perly, (for I myself believe the devil doth very little, but by nature, though to us 
unknown,) manifest causes, he doth overthrow his own grounds, and leaves us but 
very little of magical operations to believe. But of all men, Cardan had least rea- 
son to except against this kind of magick as ridiculous or incredible, who himself is 
so full of incredible stories in that kind, upon his own credit alone, that they had 
need to be of very easie belief that believe him, especially when they know (whereof 
more afterwards) what manner of man he was. But I dare say, that from Plato's 
time, who, among other appurtenances of magic, doth mention these, Krjpipa 
fiifiKfiaTa that is, as Ovid doth call them, Simulachra cerea, or as Horace, cereas 
imagines, (who also in another place more particularly describes them,) there is not 
any particular rite belonging to that art more fully attested by histories of all ages 

NOTES. 13 

than this is. Besides, who doth not know that it is the devil's fashion (we shall 
meet with it afterwards again) to amuse his servants and vassals with many rites 
and ceremonies, which have certainly no ground in nature, no relation or sympathy 
to the thing, as for other reasons, so to make them believe, they have a great hand 
in the production of such and such effects ; when, God knows, many times all that 
they do, though taught and instructed by him, is nothing at all to the purpose, and 
he, in very deed, is the only agent, by means which he doth give them no account 
of. Bodinus, in his preface to his " Dsemonology," relateth, that three waxen images, 
whereof one of Queen Elizabeth's, of glorious memory, and two other, Regince 
proximorum, of two courtiers, of greatest authority under the queen, were found 
in the house of a priest at Islington, a magician, or so reputed, to take away their 
lives. This he doth repeat again in his second book, chap. 8, but more particularly 
that it was in the year of the Lord 1578, and that Legatus Anglise and many French- 
men did divulge it so ; but withal, in both places he doth add, that the business 
was then under trial, and not yet perfectly known. I do not trust my memory : I 
know my age and my infirmities. Cambden, I am sure, I have read ; and read 
again ; but neither in him, nor in Bishop Carleton's " Thankful Remembrancer," 
do I remember any such thing. Others may, perchance. Yet, in the year 1576, 1 
read in both of some pictures, representing some that would have kill'd that glorious 
queen with a motto, Qjuorsum hwc, alio 'proper antibus ! which pictures were made 
by some of the conspiracy for their incouragement ; but intercepted, and showed, 
they say, to the queen. Did the time agree, it is possible these pictures might be 
the ground of those mistaken, if mistaken, waxen images, which I desire to be 
taught by others who can give a better account. — Casaubon's (M.) Treatise, prov- 
ing Spirits, Witches, and Supernatural Operations, 1672. 12mo., p. 92. 

In Scotland this practice was in high favour with witches, both in ancient 
and modern times. The lamentable story of poor King Duff, as related by 
Hector Boethius, a story which has blanched the cheek and spoiled the 
rest of many a youthful reader, is too well known to need extracting. 
Even so late as 1676, Sir George Maxwell, of Pollock, (See Scott's Letters 
on Bemonology and Witchcraft, p. 323,) apparently a man of melancholy 
and valetudinarian habits, believed himself bewitched to death by six 
witches, one man and five women, who were leagued for the purpose of 
tormenting a clay image in his likeness. Five of the accused were 
executed, and the sixth only escaped on account of extreme youth. 

Isabel Gowdie, the famous Scotch witch before referred to, in her con- 
fessions gives a very particular account of the mode in which these images 
were manufactured. It is curious, and worth quoting : — 

Johne Taylor and Janet Breadhead, his wyff, in Bellnakeith, Bessie Wilsone, in 
Aulderne, and Margret Wilsone, spows to Donald Callam in Aulderne, and I, 

bb 3 

14 NOTES. 

maid an pictur of clay, to distroy the Laird of Parkis meall 1 children. Johne 
Taylor browght horn the clay, in his plaid newk f his wyff brak it verie small, lyk 
meall, 3 and sifted it with a siew, 4 and powred in water among it, in the Divellis 
nam, and vrought it werie sore, lyk rye-bowt ; 5 and maid of it a pictur of the Lairdis 
sones. It haid all the pairtis and merkis of a child, such as heid, eyes, nose, handis, 
foot, mowth, and little lippes. It wanted no mark of a child ; and the handis of it 
folded down by its sydes. It was lyk a pow, 6 or a flain gryee.7 "We laid the face of 
it to the fyre, till it strakned j 8 and a cleir fyre round abowt it, till it ves read lyk a 
cole. 9 After that, we wold rost it now and then ; each other day 10 ther wold be an 
piece of it weill rosten. The Laird of Parkis heall maill children by it ar to 
suffer, if it be not gotten and brokin, als weill as thes that ar borne and dead 
alreadie. It ves still putt in and taken out of the fyre, in the Divellis name. It 
wes hung wp wpon an knag. It is yet in Johne Taylor's hows, and it hes a cradle 
of clay abowt it. Onlie Johne Taylor and his wyff, Janet Breadhead, Bessie and 
Margret Wilsones in Aulderne, and Margret Brodie, thair, and I, were onlie at 
the making of it. All the multitud of our number of Witches, of all the Coevens, 
kent 11 all of it, at owr nixt meitting after it was maid. 

The wordis which we spak, quhan we maid the pictur, for distroyeing of the 
Laird of Parkis meall-children, wer thus : 

' In the Divellis nam, we powr in this water among this mowld (meall,) 12 

For lang duyning and ill heall ; 

We putt it into the fyre, 

That it mey be brunt both stik and stowre. 

It salbe brunt, with owr will, 

As any stikle 13 wpon a kill.' 

The Divell taught ws the wordis ; and quhan ve haid learned them, we all fell 
downe wpon owr bare kneyis, and owr hair abowt owr eyes, and owr handis lifted 
wp, looking steadfast wpon the Divell, still saying the wordis thryse ower, till it 
wes maid. And then, in the Divellis nam, we did put it in, in the midst of the 
fyre. Efter it had skrukned 14 a little before the fyre, and quhan it ves read lyk a 
coale, we took it owt in the Divellis nam. Till it be broken, it will be the deathe 
of all the meall children that the Laird of Park will ewer get. Cast it ower an 
Kirk, it will not brak quhill 15 it be broken with an aix, or som such lyk thing, be a 
man's handis. If it be not broken, it will last an hundreth yeir. It hes ane cradle 
about it of clay, to preserue it from skaith ; 16 and it wes rosten each vther day, at the 

1 Male. 2 In the nook, or corner, of his plaid. 3 Pounded, or powdered it, like 

meal. 4 To make the plaster fine, and free from earthy particles. 5 Probably a 

sort of stir-about , or hasty-pudding, made of rye-flour. 6 In another deposition it is 

thus expressed, 'lyk a. pow orfeadge.' A feadge was a sort of scone, or roll, of a pretty 
large size. Perhaps this term signifies, as large as the quantity of dough or paste neces- 
sary for making this kind of bread. 7 A flayed sucking pig, after being scalded and 
scraped. 8 Shrivelled with the heat. 9 Red like a coal. 10 Each alternate 
day. u Knew. 12 It is written meall in the other Confession; and the metre 
(such as it is) requires this liberty. Mowld signifies ' earth' or ' dust.' 13 Stubble- 
14 Parched; shrivelled. 15 Until. 16 Harm; injury. 

NOTES. 15 

fyr ; som tymes on pairt of it, som tymes an vther pairt of it ; it void be a litle wat 
with water, and then rosten. The bairn void be brunt and rosten, ewin as it ves 
by ws. — Pitcaime's Criminal Trials, Vol. iii. pp. 605 and 612. 

B4J. "And sayd that she should haue gould, siluer, and worldly wealth at 
her will."] These familiars, to use Warburton's expression, always promised 
with the lavishness of a young courtier, and performed with the indifference 
of an old one. Nothing seems to puzzle Dr. Dee more, in the long and 
confidential intercourse he carried on so many years with his spirits, than to 
account for the great scarcity of specie they seemed to be afflicted with, and 
the unsatisfactory and unfurnished state of their exchequer. Bills, to be 
sure, they gave at long dates ; but these constantly required renewing, and 
were never honoured at last. Any application for present relief, in good 
current coin of the realm, was invariably followed by what Meric Casaubon 
very significantly calls " sermonlike stuff." The learned professor in witchery, 
John Stearne, seems to fix six shillings as the maximum of money payment 
at one time which in all his experience he had detected between witches 
and their familiars. He was examining Joan Euccalver, of Powstead, in 
Suffolk, who had been promised by her spirit that she should never want 
meat, drink, clothes, or money. " Then I asked her whether they brought 
her any money or no ; and she said sometimes four shillings at a time, and 
sometimes six shillings at a time ; but that is but seldom, for I never knew 
any that had any money before, except of Clarke's wife, of Manningtree, who 
confessed the same, and showed some, which, she said, her impe brought 
her, which was proper money." Confirmation, page 27. Judging from the 
anxiety which this worthy displays to be " satisfied and paid with reason" 
for his itinerant labours, such a scanty and penurious supply would soon 
have disgusted him, if he had been witch, instead of witch-finder. 

B 4 b. " She had bewitched to death Richard Ashton, sonne of Richard 
Ashton, of Downeham, Esquire."] Eichard Assheton, (as the name is more 
properly spelled,) thus done to death by witchcraft, was the son of Richard 
Assheton, of Downham, an old manor house, the scite of which is now 
supplied by a modern structure, which Dr. Whitaker thinks, in point of 
situation, has no equal in the parish of Whalley. Richard, the son, married 
Isabel, daughter and heiress of Mr. Hancock, of Pendleton Hall, and died 
without offspring. The family estate accordingly descended to the younger 
brother, Nicholas Assheton, whose diary for part of the year 1617 and part 
of the year following is given, page 303 of Whitaker's History of Whalley, 



edition 1818, and is a most valuable record of the habits, pursuits, and 
course of life of a Lancashire country gentleman of that period. It well 
deserves detaching in a separate publication, and illustrating with a more 
expanded commentary. 

C b. " Piggin full."] Piggin is properly a sort of bowl, or pail, with 
one of the staves much longer than the rest, made for a handle, to lade 
water by, and used especially in brewhonses to measure out the liquor 

C 2 a. "Nicholas Banister."] Dr. Whitaker, in the pedigree of the 
Banisters, of Altham, (genealogy was, it is well known, one of the vulner- 
able parts of this Achilles of topography,) erroneously states this Nicholas 
Banister to have been buried at Altham, December 7, 1611. It appears, 
however, from a deed, an inspection of which I owe to the kindness of my 
friend, Dr. Fleming, that his will was dated the 15th August, 1612. In all 
probability he did not die for some years after that date. He married, first, 
Elizabeth, daughter and heiress of Eichard Elston, of Brockall, Esq. ; and, 
second, Catherine, daughter of Edmund Ashton, of Chaderton, Esq. The 
manor house of Altham, for more than five centuries the residence of this 
ancient family, stands, to use Dr. Whitaker's words, upon a gentle elevation 
on the western side of the river Calder, commanding a low and fertile 
domain. It has been surrounded, according to the prudence or jealousy of 
the feudal times, with a very deep quadrangular moat, which must have 
included all the apparatus of the farm. 

C 3 a. "At Malking Tower, in the forrest qfPendle."] Malkin Tower 
was the habitation of Mother Demdike, the situation of which is preserved, 
for the structure no longer exists, by local tradition. Malkin is the Scotch 
or north country word for hare, as this animal was one into which witches 
were supposed to be fond of transforming themselves. Malkin Tower is, 
in fact, the Witches' Tower. The term is used in the following passage in 
Morisons Poems, p. 7, which bears upon the above explanation : — 

" Or tell the pranks o' winter's nights, 
How Satan blazes uncouth lights ; 
Or how he does a core convene 
Upon a witch-frequented green, 
Wi' spells and cauntrips hellish rantin', 
Like raawkins thro' the fields they're j anting." 

NOTES. 17 

C 4 b. " We want old Demdike, who dyed in the castle before she came to 
her tryall."] Worn out most probably with lier imprisonment, she having 
been committed in April, and the cruelties she had undergone, both before 
and after her commitment. Master Nowell and Master Potts both wanted 
her, we may readily conceive, to fill up the miserable pageant ; but she was 
gone where the wicked cease from troubling, and the weary are at rest. 
With the exception of Alice Nutter, in whom interest is excited from very 
different grounds, Mother Demdike attracts attention in a higher degree 
than any other of these Pendle witches. She was, beyond dispute, the 
Erictho of Pendle. Mother Chattox was but second in rank. There is 
something fearfully intense in the expression of the former, — blind, on the 
last verge of the extreme limit of human existence, and mother of a line 
of witches, — "that she would pray for the said Baldwin, both still and 
loud." She is introduced in Shadwell's play, the Lancashire Witches, 1682, 
as a persona dramatis, along with Mother Dickinson and Mother Hargrave, 
two of the witches convicted in 1633, but without any regard to the charac- 
teristic circumstances under which she appears in the present narrative. 
The following invocation, which is put into her mouth, is rather a favourable 
specimen of that play, certainly not one of the worst of Shadwell's, in which 
there are many vigorous strokes, with an alloy of coarseness not unusual in 
his works, and some powerful conceptions of character : 

Come, sisters, come, why do you stay ? 
Our business will not brook delay ; 
The owl is flown from the hollow oak, 
From lakes and bogs the toads do croak ; 
The foxes bark, the screech-owl screams, 
Wolves howl, bats fly, and the faint beams 
Of glow-worms light grows bright a-pace ; 
The stars are fled, the moon hides her face. 
The spindle now is turning round, 
Mandrakes are groaning under ground : 
I'th' hole i'th' ditch (our nails have made) 
Now all our images are laid, 
Of wax and wooll, which we must prick, 
"With needles urging to the quick. 
Into the hole I'le poure a flood 
Of black lambs bloud, to make all good. 
The lamb with nails and teeth wee'l tear. 
Come, where's the sacrifice ? appear. 

C C 


Oyntment for flying here I have, 

Of childrens fat, stoln from the grave : 

The juice of smallage, and night-shade, 

Of poplar leaves, and aconite, made 

With these. 

The aromatic reed I boyl, 

With water-parsnip and cinquefoil ; 

With store of soot, and add to that 

The reeking blood of many a bat. 

Lancashire Witches, pp. 10, 41. 

One of the peculiarities of Shadwell's play is the introduction of the 
Lancashire dialect, which he makes his clown Clod speak. The subjoined 
extract may perhaps amuse my readers. Collier would have enjoyed it : 

Clod. An yeow been a raon Ay'st talk wy ye a bit, yeow mun tack a care o your 
sells, the plecs haunted with Buggarts, and Witches, one of 'em took my Condle and 
Lanthorn out of my hont, and flew along wy it ; and another Set me o top o'th 
tree, where I feel dawn now, Ay ha well neegh brocken my theegh. 

Doubt. The fellows mad, I neither understand his words, nor his Sence, prethee 
how far is it to Whalley ? 

Clod. Why yeow are quite besaid th' road raon, yeow Shoulden a gon dawn th' 
bonk by Thomas o Georges, and then ee'n at yate, and turn'd dawn th' Lone, and 
left the Steepo o'th reeght hont. 

Bell. Prithee don't tell us what we should have done, but how far is it to 
Whalley ? 

Clod. Why marry four mail and a bit. 

Doubt. Wee'l give thee an Angel and show us the way thither. 

Clod. Marry thats Whaint. I canno see my hont, haw con Ay show yeow to 
Whalley to neeght. 

Bell. Canst thou show us to any house where we may have Shelter and Lodging 
to night ? we are Gentlemen and strangers, and will pay you well for't. 

Clod. Ay byr Lady con I, th' best ludging and diet too in aw Lancashire. 
Yonder at th' hough where yeow seen th' leeghts there. 

Doubt. Whose house is that ? 

Clod. Why what a pox, where han yeow lived ? why yeow are Strongers indeed ! 
why, 'tis Sir Yedard Harfourts, he Keeps oppen hawse to all Gentry, yeou'st be 
welcome to him by day and by neeght he's Lord of aw here abauts.. 

Bell. My Mistresses Father, Luck if it be thy will, have at my Isabella, Canst 
thou guide us thither ? 

Clod. Ay, Ay, there's a pawer of Company there naw, Sir Jeffery Shaklehead, 
and the Knight his Son, and Doughter. 

Doubt. Lucky above my wishes, O my dear Theodosia, how my heart leaps at 
her ! prethee guide us thither, wee'l pay thee well. 

Clod. Come on, I am e'n breed aut o my sences, I was ne'er so freeghtened sin 
I was born, give me your hont.- Lancashire Witches, p. 14. 



D b. "Ann Whittle^ alias Chattox,"] Chattox, from her continually 

D2«. "Her lippes euer chattering and walking."] & Walking,' i. e., 
working. Old Chattox might have sat to Archhishop^Harsnet f for her 
portrait. What can exceed the force and graphic truth, the searching wit 
and sarcasm, of the picture he sketches in 1 605 ? 

Out of these is shaped vs the true Idcea of a Witch, an old weather-beaten 
Croane, hauing her chinne, & her knees meeting for age, walking like a bow leaning 
on a shaft, hollow eyed, vntoothed, furrowed on her face, hauing her lips trembling 
with the palsie, going mumbling in the streetes, one that hath forgotte her pater 
noster, and hath yet a shrewd tongue in her head, to call a drab, a drab. If shee 
haue learned of an olde wife in a chimnies end : Pax, max, fax, for a spel : or can 
say Sir Iohn of Grantams curse, for the Millers Eeles, that were stolne : All you 
that haue stolne the Millers Eeles, Laudate dominum de cwlis : And all they that 
haue consented thereto, benedicamus domino : Why then ho, beware, looke about 
you my neighbours ; if any of you haue a sheepe sicke of the giddies, or an hogge 
of the mumps, or an horse of the staggers, or a knauish boy of the schoole, or an 
idle girle of the wheele, or a young drab of the sullens, and hath not fat enough for 
her porredge, nor her father, and mother, butter enough for their bread ; and she 
haue a little helpe of the Mother, Epilepsie, or Cramp, to teach her role her eyes, 
wrie her mouth, gnash her teeth, startle with her body, holde her armes and hands 
stiffe, make anticke faces, grine, mow, and mop like an Ape, tumble like a Hedge- 
hogge, and can mutter out two or three words of gibridg, as obus, bobus : and then 
with-all old mother Nobs hath called her by chaunce, idle young [huswife, or bid 
the deuill scratch her, then no doubt but mother Nobs is the Witch : the young 
girle is Owle-blasted, and possessed : and it goes hard but ye shall haue some idle 
adle, giddie, lymphaticall, illuminate dotrel, who being out of credite, learning, 
sobriety, honesty, and wit, will take this holy aduantage, to raise the mines of his 
desperate decayed name, and for his better glory wil be-pray! the iugling drab, and 
cast out Mopp the deuil. 

They that haue their braines baited, and their fancies distempered with the 
imaginations, and apprehensions of Witches, Coniurers, and Fayries, and all that 
Lymphatical Chimwra : I finde to be marshalled in one of these fiue rankes, chil- 
dren, fooles, women, cowards, sick, or blacke, melancholicke, discomposed wits. 
The Scythians being a warlike Nation (as Plutarch reports) neuer saw any visions. 
— Harsnet's Declaration, p. 136. 

D 2 a. "From these two sprung all the rest in order."] The descent 
from these two rival witch stocks, between which a deadly feud and 

cc 2 



animosity prevailed, which led to the destruction of both families, is shewn 
as follows : 

Elizabeth Sothernes, 
alias Old Demdike, 
died in prison in 1612, 
about 80 years old. 
1 I 2 

Christopher = Eliz. 
Howgate. Both of 
them were reputed 
to be at the witches 
meeting on Good 
Friday, 1612, but 
were not indicted. 
Perhaps they were 
the " one Holgate 
and his wife " men- 
tioned amongst the 
witches in 1633. 

Elizabeth, execu- 
ted at Lancaster, 

John Device, or 
Davies, supposed 
to have been be- 
witched to death, 
by Widow Chattox, 
because he had'not 
paid her his yearly 
aghen dole of^meal. 

James Device, or Alizon, executed 
Davies, executed at at Lancaster in 1612. 
Lancaster in 1612. 

Jennet, .9 years old 
in 1612, and an evi- 
dence in the present 
trial. Condemned 
herself, along with 
16 other persons, 
for witchcraft, in 
1633, when she ap- 
pears to have been 
unmarried, but not 

Anne Whittle, alias 
Chattox, executed 
at Lancaster, 1612, 
about 80 years old. 

Anne, r execu- •= Thomas Red- 
ted in 1612. | feme. 

D 3 a. " Gommaunded this examinate to call him by the name of Fancie."] 
The fittest name for a familiar she could possibly have chosen. Sir Walter 
Scott (Letters on Demonoloyy, p. 242) unaccountably speaks of Fancie 
as a female devil. Master Potts would have told him, (see M 2 b,) " that 
Fancie had a very good face, and was a very proper man." 

D 3 b. " The wife of Richard Baldwin^ of Pendle."] Richard Bald- 
win was the miller who accosted Old Dembdike so unceremoniously. 

D 3 b. " Robert Nutter."] The family of the Nutters, of Pendle, 
bore a great share in the proceedings referred to in this trial. It seems to 
have been a family of note amongst the inferior gentry or yeomanry of the 
forest. A Nutter held courts for many years about this period, as deputy 
steward at Clitheroe. (See Whitaker's Whalley, p. 307.) Three of the 
name are stated in the evidence to have been killed by witchcraft, Christo- 
pher Nutter, Robert Nutter, and Anne, the daughter of Anthony Nutter ; 

of Pendle, called old Ro- 
bert Nutter. 

NOTES. 21 

and one of the unfortunate persons convicted is Alice Nutter. The branch 
to which Robert belonged is shewn in the following table : 

Robert Nutter, the elder, = Elizabeth, who is reputed 
to have employed Anne 
Chattox, Loomeshaw's 
wife, and Jane Boothman 
to bewitch to death young 
Robert Nutter, that other 
relations might inherit. 

Christopher, reputed 
to have died of witch- 
craft about 18 years 
1 | 2 3 

Robert, of Greenhead, in Pendle, = Mary. John, of Higham Margaret = Crooke. 

a retainer of Sir Richard Shut-' Booth. | 

tie worth, reputed to have been v , ' 

bewitched to death 18 or 19 years gave evidence at the 

before the trial took place. trial. 

D 4 a. " One Mr. Baldwyn (the late Sckoole-maister at Goulne) did by 
his learning, stay the sayd Loomeshaws wife, and therefore had a Capon 
from Redfearne."] I regret that I can give no account of this learned 
Theban, who appears to have stayed the plague, and who taught at the 
school at which Archbishop Tillotson was afterwards educated. He well 
deserved his capon. Had he continued at Colne up to the time of this trial, 
he might perhaps, on the same easy terms, have kept the powers of dark- 
ness in check, and prevented some imputed crimes which cost ten unfor- 
tunates their lives. 

E b. " lames Robinson"'] Baines, in his History of Lancashire, vol. i. 
p. 605, speaks of Edmund Robinson, the father of the boy on whose 
evidence the witches were convicted in 1633, as if he had been a witness at 
the present trial ; which is probably a mistake for this James Robinson, as 
no Edmund Robinson appears amongst the witnessses whose depositions 
are given. 

E b. "Anne Whittle alias Chattox was hired by this examinates 
wife to card wooll."] She seems to have been by occupation a carder of 
wool, and to have filled up the intervals, when she had no employment, by 

E 2 a, "Sir Richard Shuttleworth."] Of the family of the Shuttle- 
worths of Gawthorp, " where they resided " Whitaker observes, " in the 

cc 3 

22 NOTES. 

condition of inferior gentry till the lucrative profession of the law raised 
them, in the reign of Elizabeth, to the rank of knighthood and an estate 
proportioned to its demands." Sir Richard was Sergeant-at-law, and Chief 
Justice of Chester, 31st Elizabeth, and died without issue about 1600. 

E 2 b. "A Charme."] Evidently in so corrupted a state as to bid defi- 
ance to any attempt at elucidation. 

E 3 a. " Perceiuing Anthonie Nutter of Pendle to fauour Elizabeth 
Sothernes alias Dembdike."] The Sothernes and Davies's and the Whittles 
and Redfernes were the Montagus and Capulets of Pendle. The poor 
cottager whose drink was forsepoken or bewitched, or whose cow went mad, 
and who in his attempt to propitiate one of the rival powers offended the 
other, would naturally exclaim from the innermost recesses of his heart, 
" A plague on both your houses." 

E 3 a. "Gaping as though he would haue wearied this Examinate."] 
Wearied for worried. 

E 3 b. "Examination of lames Device."] This is a very curious 
examination. The production of the four teeth and figure of clay dug up 
at the west-end of Malkin Tower would look like a " damning witness" to 
the two horror-struck justices and the assembled concourse at Read, who 
did not perhaps consider how easily such evidences may be furnished, and 
how readily they who hide may find. The incident deposed to at the 
burial at the New Church in Pendle is a wild and striking one. 

E 4 a. " About eleuen yeares agoe, this Examinate and her mother had 
their f rehouse broken."] The inference intended is, that Whittle's family 
committed the robbery from Old Demdike's house. This was, in all pro- 
bability, the origin of their feuds. The abstraction of the coif and band, 
tempting articles to the young daughter of Old Chattox, not destitute, if we 
may judge from one occurrence deposed to, of personal attractions, may be 
said to have convulsed Lancashire from the Leven to the Mersey, — to have 
caused a sensation, the shock of which, after more than two centuries, has 
scarcely yet subsided, and to have actually given a new name to the 
fair sex. 

NOTES. 23 

E4i. " One Aghen-dole of meaie."] This Aghen-dole, a word still, 
I believe, in use for a particular measure of any article, was, I presume, a 
kind of witches' black mail. My friend, the Rev. Canon Parkinson, 
informs me that Aghen-dole, sometimes pronounced Acken-dole, signifies 
an half-measure of anything, from half-hand-dole. Mr. Halliwell has 
omitted it in his Glossary, now in progress. 

E 4 i. "John Moore of Higham, Gentleman."] Sir Jonas Moore, 
of whom an account is contained in Whitaker's Whalley, p. 479, and whom 
he characterizes as a sanguine projector, was born in Pendle Forest, and 
was probably of this family. 

E 4 b. " She would meet with the said Iohn Moore, or his"] i. e. 
She would be equal with him. 

F a. " Gharne."] i. e. Charm. 

F a. " With weeping teares she humbly acknowledged them to be true."] 
She seems to have confessed in the hope of saving her daughter, Anne 
Redfern. But from such a judge as Sir Edward Bromley, mercy was as 
little to be expected as common sense from his "faithful chronicler," 
Thomas Potts. I 

F 2 b. " Sparing no man with fearefull execrable curses and banning."] 
Nothing seems to shock the nerves of these witch historiographers so much 
as the utter want of decorum and propriety exhibited by these unhappy 
creatures in giving vent to these indignant outbreaks, which a sense of the 
wicked injustice of their fate, and seeing their own offspring brought up in 
evidence against them, through the most detestable acts, and by the basest 
subornation, would naturally extort from minds even of iron mould. If 
ever Lear s or Timon's power of malediction could be justifiably called into 
exercise, it would be against such a tribunal and such witnesses as they had 
generally to encounter. 

F 4 a. " That at the third time her Spirit."] Something seems to be 
wanting here, as she does not state what occurred at the two previous inter- 
views. The learned judge may have exercised a sound discretion in this 
omission, as the particulars might be of a nature unfit for publication. The 


24 NOTES. 

present tract is, undoubtedly, remarkably free from those disgusting details 
of which similar reports are generally full to overflowing. 

F 4 b. " The said Iennet Deuice, being a yong Maide, about the age of 
nine yeares."] This child must have been admirably trained, (some Master 
Thomson might have been near at hand to instruct her,) or must have had 
great natural capacity for deception. She made an excellent witness on 
this occasion. What became of her after the wholesale extinction of her 
family, to which she was so mainly instrumental, is not now known. In 
all likelihood she dragged on a miserable existence, a forlorn outcast, 
pointed at by the hand of scorn, or avoided with looks of horror in the 
wilds of Pendle. As if some retributive punishment awaited her, she is 
reported to have been the Jennet Davies who was condemned in 1 633, on 
the evidence of Edmund Robinson the younger, with Mother Dickenson 
and others, but not executed. Her confession, if she made one at the 
second trial, might not have been unsimilar to that of Alexander Sussums, 
of Melford in Suffolk, who, Hearne tells us, confessed " that he had things 
which did draw those marks I found upon him, but said he conld not help 
it, for that all his kinred were naught. Then I asked him how it was pos- 
sible they could suck without his consent. He said he did consent to 
that. Then I asked him again why he should do it when as God was so 
merciful towards him, as I then told him of, being a man whom I had been 
formerly acquainted withal, as having lived in town. He answered again, 
he could not help it, for that all his generation was naught ; and so told me 
his mother and aunt were hanged, his grandmother burnt for witchcraft, 
and ten others of them questioned and hanged. This man is yet living, 
notwithstanding he confessed the sucking of such things above sixteen 
years together." — Confirmation, p. 36. 

Of 3 a. " Anne Crouckshey."~\ Anne Cronkshaw. 

G 3 b. " Vpon Good Friday last there was about twentie persons."] This 
meeting, if not a witches' Sabbath, was a close approximation to one. On 
the subject of the Sabbath, or periodical meeting of witches, De Lancre is 
the leading authority. He who is curious cannot do better than consult 
this great hierophant, (his work is entitled Tableau de l'lnconstance des 
mauvais Anges et Demons. Paris, 1613, 4to.) whose knowledge and 
experience well qualified him to have been constituted the Itinerant Master 

NOTES. 25 

of Ceremonies, an officer who, he assures us, was never wanting on such 
occasions. In that singular book, The History of Monsieur Oujte, p. 288, 
(English Translation, 1711, 8vo.) are collected from various sources all the 
ceremonies and circumstances attending the holding the Sabbath. It 
appears that non-attendance invariably incurred a penalty, which is com- 
puted upon the average at the eighth part of a crown, or in French currency 
at ten sous — that, though the contrary has been maintained by many 
grave authors, egress and ingress by the chimney (De Lancre had deposi- 
tions without number, he tells us, vide p. 314, on this important head,) was 
not a matter of solemn obligation, but was an open question — that no grass 
ever grows upon the place where the Sabbath is kept ; which is accounted 
for by the circumstance of its being trodden by so many of those whose 
feet are constitutionally hot, and therefore being burnt up and consequently 
very barren — that two devils of note preside on the occasion, the great 
negro, who is called Master Leonard, and a little devil, whom Master 
Leonard sometimes substitutes in his place as temporary vice-president ; his 
name is Master John Mullin. (De Lancre, p. 126.) With regard to a very 
important point, the bill of fare, great difference of opinion exists : some 
maintaining that every delicacy of the season, to use the newspaper phrase, 
is provided ; others stoutly asserting that nothing is served up but toads, 
the flesh of hanged criminals, dead carcases fresh buried taken out of 
Churchyards, flesh of unbaptized infants, or beasts which died of them- 
selves — that they never eat with salt, and that their bread is of black 
millet. (De Lancre, pp. 104, 105.) In this diversity of opinion I can only 
suggest, that difference of climate, habit, and fashion, might possibly have 
its weight, and render a very different larder necessary for the witches of 
Pendle and those of Gascony or Lorrain. The fare of the former on this 
occasion appears to have been of a very substantial and satisfactory kind, 
" beef, bacon, and roasted mutton :" the old saying so often quoted by the 
discontented masters of households applying emphatically in this case : — 

" God sends us good meat, but the devil sends cooks." 

We find in the present report no mention made of the 

* Dance and provencal song " 

which formed one great accompaniment of the orgies of the southern 
witches. Bodin's authority is express, that each, the oldest not excused, 
was expected to perform a coranto, and great attention was paid to the 


26 NOTES. 

regularity of the steps. We owe to him the discovery, which is not re- 
corded in any annals of dancing I have met with, that the lavolta, a dance 
not dissimilar, according to his description, to the polka of the present day, 
was brought out of Italy into France by the witches at their festive 
meetings- Of the language spoken at these meetings, De Lancre favours us 
with a specimen, valuable, like the Punic fragment in the Poenolus, for its 
being the only one of the kind. In nomine patrica araguenco petrica 
agora, agora, Valentia jouando goure gaiti goustia. As it passes my 
skill, I can only commend it to the especial notice of Mr. Borrow against 
his next journey into Spain. What was spoken at Malkin Tower was, 
doubtless, a dialect not yet obsolete, and which Tummus and Meary would 
have had no difficulty in comprehending. On the subject of these witches' 
Sabbaths, Dr. Ferriar remarks, in his curious and agreeable Essay on 
Popular Illusions, (see Memoirs of the Manchester Literary and Philoso- 
phical Society, vol. iii., p. 68,) a sketch which it is much to be regretted 
that he did not subsequently expand and revise, and publish in a separate 
form : — 

The solemn meetings of witches are supposed to be put beyond all doubt by the 
numerous confessions of criminals, who have described their ceremonies, named the 
times and places of meeting, and the persons present, and who have agreed in their 
relations, though separately delivered.* But I would observe, first, that the cir- 
cumstances told of those festivals are ridiculous and incredible in themselves ; for 
they are represented as gloomy and horrible, yet with a mixture of childish and 
extravagant fancies, more likely to disgust and alienate than to conciliate the minds 
of the guests. They have every appearance of uneasy dreams ; sometimes the devil 
and his subjects say mass, sometimes he 'preaches to them, more commonly he was 
seen in the form of a black goat, surrounded by imps in a thousand frightful shapes ; 
but none of these forms are new, they all resemble known quadrupeds or reptiles . 
Secondly, I observe, that there is direct proof furnished even by demonologists, 
that all these supposed journies and entertainments are nothing more than dreams. 
Persons accused of witchcraft have been repeatedly watched, about the time which 
they had fixed for the meeting ; they have been seen to anoint themselves with 
soporific compositions, after which they fell into profound sleep, and on awaking, 
several hours afterwards, they have related their journey through the air, their 
amusement at the festival, and have named the persons whom they saw there. In 

* There is a grave relation, in Delrio, of a witch being shot flying, by a Spanish cen- 
tinel, at the bridge of Nieulet, near Calais, after that place was taken by the Spaniards. 
The soldier saw a black cloud advancing rapidly, from which voices issued : when it came 
near, he fired into it ; immediately a witch dropped. This is undoubted proof of the 
meetings! — Disq. Maff., p. 708. 

NOTES. 27 

the instance told by Hoffman, the dreamer was chained to the floor. Common 
sense would rest satisfied here, hut the enthusiasm of demonology has invented 
more than one theory to get rid of these untoward facts. Dr. Henry More, as was 
formerly mentioned, believed that the astral spirit only was carried away : other 
demonologists imagined that the witch was really removed to the place of meeting, 
but that a cacodemon was left in her room, as an ciSwAoj/, to delude the spectators. 
Thirdly, some stories of the festivals are evidently tricks. Such is that related by 
Bodinus, with much gravity : a man is found in a gentleman's cellar, and appre- 
hended as a thief ; he declares his wife had brought him thither to a witch-meeting, 
and on his pronouncing the name of God, she and all her companions had vanished, 
and left him inclosed. His wife is immediately seized, on this righteous evidence, 
and hanged, with several other persons, named as present at the meeting. 

G 3 b. " Christopher Iackes, of Thorny-holme, and his wife."] This 
would appear to be Christopher Hargreaves, called here Christopher Jackes, 
for o' or of Jack, according to the Lancashire mode of forming patronymics. 

G4«. " The first was, for the naming of the Spirit, which Alizon De- 
uice, now Prisoner at Lancaster, had : But did not name him, because shee 
was not there."] Gaule says, speaking of the ceremonies at the witches' 
solemn meetings : " If the witch be outwardly christian, baptism must be 
renounced, and the party must be rebaptized in the Devil's name, and a new 
name is also imposed by him ; and here must be godfathers too, for the 
Devil takes them not to be so adult as to promise and vow for themselves." 
{Cases of Conscience touching Witches, page 59. 1646, 12mo.) But Gaule 
does not mention any naming or .baptism of spirits and familiars on such 

G4i. " Romleyes Moore!'] Romilly's or Rumbles Moor, a wild and 
mountainous range in Craven, not unaptly selected for a meeting on a spe- 
cial emergency of a conclave of witches. 

H2fl. " Was so insensible, weake, and vnable in all thinges, as he could 
neither speake, heare, or stand, but was holden vp."] Pitiable, truly, was the 
situation of this unhappy wretch. Brought out from the restraint of a long 
imprisonment, before and during which he had, as we may conjecture, been 
subjected to every inhumanity, in a state more dead than alive, into a court 
which must have looked like one living mass, with every eye lit up with 
horror, and curses, not loud but deep, muttered with harmonious concord 
from the mouths of every spectator. 

dd 2 

28 NOTES. 

H 2 a. "Anne Towneley, wife of Henrie Towneley, of the Carre."] 
Would this be Anne, the daughter and co-heiress of Thomas Catterall, of 
Catterall and Little Mitton, Esq., who married Henry Townley, the son of 
Lawrence Townley ? (See Whitaker's Whalley, p. 396.) The Townleys 
of Barnside and Carr were a branch of the Townleys, of Townley. Barn- 
side, or Barnsete, is an ancient mansion in the township of Colne, which, 
Whitaker observes, was abandoned by the family, for the warmer situation 
of Carr, about the middle of the last century. 

H 2 a. "Master Nowel humbly prayed Master Towneley might be 
called."] It is to be regretted we have no copy of the viva voce examina- 
tion of Mr. Townley, the husband of the lady whose life was said to have 
been taken away by witchcraft. The examinations given in this tract are 
altogether those of persons in a humble rank of life. The contrast between 
their evidence and that of an individual occupying the position of the descen- 
dant of one of the oldest families in the neighbourhood, with considerable 
landed possessions, might have been amusing and instructive. 

H 2 a. " Master NoweU humbly prayed, that the particular examinations 
taken before him and others might be openly published and read in court."] 
This kind of evidence, the witnesses being in court, and capable of being 
examined, would not be received at the present day. At that time a 
greater laxity prevailed. 

H3 «. " Sheare Thursday"] The Thursday before Easter, and so 
called, for that, in the old Fathers' days, the people would that day, M shave 
their hedes, and clypp their berdes, and pool their heedes, and so make 
them honest against Easter Day." — Brand's Popular Antiquities, vol. i., 
p. 83, edition 1841. 

Kb. "A Charme."] Sinclair, in his Satan's Invisible World Dis- 
covered, informs us, that " At night, in the time of popery, when folks went 
to bed, they believed the repetition of this following prayer was effectual to 
preserve them from danger, and the house too. 

" Who sains the house the night, 
They that sains it ilka night. 
Saint Bryde and her brate, 
Saint Colme and his hat, 

NOTES. 29 

Saint Michael and his spear, 

Keep this house from the weir ; 

From running thief, 

And burning thief; 

And from and ill Rea, 

That be the gate can gae ; 

And from an ill weight, 

That be the gate can light 

Nine reeds about the house ; 

Keep it all the night, 

What is that, what I see 

So red, so bright, beyond the sea ? 

'Tis he was pierc'd through the hands, 

Through the feet, through the throat, 

Through the tongue ; 

Through the liver and the lung. 

Well is them that well may 

Fast on Good-friday." 

which lines are not unlike some of those in the present " charme," which, 
evidently much corrupted by recitation, is a very singular and interesting 
string of fragments handed down from times long anterior to the Refor- 
mation, when they had been employed as armour of proof by the credulous 
vulgar against the Robin Goodfellows, urchins, elves, hags, and fairies of 
earlier superstition. I regret that I cannot throw more light upon it. The 
concluding lines are not deficient in poetical spirit. 

K b. " Ligh in leatk wand."~\ Leath is no doubt lithe, flexible. What 
" ligh in " is intended for, unless it be lykinge, which the Promptorium 
Parvulorum {vide part i. p. 304) explains by lusty, or craske, Delicativus, 
crassus, I am unable to conjecture. It is clear, that the wand in one hand 
is to steck, i. e. stake, or fasten, the latch of hell door, while the key in his 
other hand is to open heaven's lock. 

K b. " Let Crizum child gee to it Mother mild."] The chrisom, 
according to the usual explanation, was a white cloth placed upon the head 
of an infant at baptism, when the chrism, or sacred oil of the Romish 
Church, was used in that sacrament. If the child died within a month of 
its birth, that cloth was used as a shroud ; and children so dying were 
called chrisoms in the old bills of mortality. 

Kb. "A light so farrandly."] Farrandly, or farrantly, a word still in 

DD 3 

30 NOTES. 

use in Lancashire, and which is equivalent to fair, likely, or handsome. 
(See Lancashire Dialect and Glossary.) " Harne panne, t. e., cranium. — 
Promptorium Parvulorum, p. 237. 

K 2 a. " Vpon the ground of holy weepe."] I know not how to explain 
this, unless it mean the ground of holy weeping, i. e., the Garden of Geth- 

K 2 a. " Shall neuer deere thee."] The word to dere, or hurt, says Mr. 
Way, Promptorium Parvulorum, p. 119, is commonly used by Chaucer 
and most other writers until the sixteenth century : 

" Fyr he schal hym nevyr dere." 

Camr de Lion, 1638. 

Fabyan observes, under the year 1194, "So fast besyed this good Kyng 
Richarde to vex and dere the infydelys of Sury." Palsgrave gives, " To 
dere or hurte a noye nuire, I wyll never dere you by my good wyll." Ang. 
Sax., bepian nocere, bejiung Icesio. 

K 3 a. "The Witches of Salmesbvry."] Or, more properly, Samlesbury. 
This wicked attempt on the part of this priest, or Jesuit, Thompson, alias 
Southworth, to murder the three persons whose trial is next reported, by 
suborning a child of the family to accuse them of what, in the excited state of 
the public mind at the time, was almost certain to consign them to a public 
execution, has few parallels in the annals of atrocity. The plot was defeated, 
and the lives of the persons accused, Jennet Bierley, Ellen Bierley, and 
Jane Southworth, saved, by no sagacity of the judge or wisdom of the jury, 
but by the effect of one simple question, wrung from the intended victims 
on the verge of anticipated condemnation, and which, natural as it might 
appear, was one the felicity of which Garrow or Erskine might have 
envied. It demolished, like Ithuriel's spear, the whole fabric of imposture, 
and laid it open even to the comprehension of Sir Edward Bromley and 
Master Thomas Potts. This was a case which well deserved Archbishop 
Harsnet for its historian. His vein of irony, which Swift or Echard never 
surpassed, and the scorching invective of which he was so consummate a 
master, would have been well employed in handing down to posterity a 
scene of villainy to which the frauds of Somers and the stratagems of 
Weston were mere child's play. We might then have had, from the most 

NOTES. 31 

enlightened man of his age, a commentary on the statute 1st James First, 
which would have neutralized its mischief, and spared a hecatomb of vic- 
tims. His resistless ridicule would, perhaps, have accomplished at once 
what was slowly and with difficulty brought about by the arguments of 
Scot and Webster, the establishment of the Royal Society, and a century's 
growth of intelligence and knowledge. 

K 3 b. " A Seminarie Priest."] Of this Thompson, alias Southworth, 
I find no account in Dodd's Catholic Church History. A John Southworth 
is noticed, vol. iii. p. 303, who is described as of an ancient family in Lan- 
cashire, and who was executed at Tyburn, June 28th, 1655. His dying 
speech is to be found in the same volume, p. 360. The interval of time, 
as well as the difference of surname, excludes the presumption of his being 
identical with the person referred to in the text, the hero of this extraordi- 
nary conspiracy, and who was probably of the family of Sir John Southworth, 
after mentioned. 

K 3 b. "A Iesuite, whereof this Countie of Lancaster hath good 
sto?-e."] Lancashire was, about this period, the great hot-bed of Popish 
recusants. From the very curious list of recusants given (Baines's Lanca- 
shire, vol. i. p. 541,) it would seem that Samlesbury was one of their 
strongholds : — 

James Cowper a seminarie prieste receipted releived and mainteined att the lodge 
of Sir John Southworthe in Samlesburie Parke by Mr. Tho : Southworthe, one of 
the younger sonnes of the said Sir John. And att the howse of John Warde 
dwellinge in Samlesburie Park syde. And the said Prieste sayeth Masse att the 
said lodge and att the said Wards howse. Whether resorte, Mr. Sowthworthe, 
Mres. An Sowthworthe, John Walmesley servante to Sir John Southworthe, Tho. 
Southworthe dwellinge in the Parke, John Gerrerde, servante to Sir John South- 
worthe, John Singleton, John Wrighte, James Sherples iunior, John Warde of 
Samlesburie, John Warde of Medler thelder, Henrie Potter of Medler, John 
Gouldon of Winwicke, Thomas Gouldon of the same, Roberte Anderton of Sam- 
lesburie and John Sherples of Stanleyhurst in Samlesburie. — Baines's Lancashire, 
vol. i. p. 543. 

Att the lodge in Samlesburie Parke there be masses daylie and Seminaries 
dyuerse Resorte thither as James Cowpe, Harrisson Bell and such like, The like 
vnlawfull meetings are made daylie att the howse of John Warde by the Parke 
syde of Samlesburie all wiche matters, masses, resorte to Masses, receipting of 
Seminaries wilbe Justifyed by Mr. Adam Sowtheworthe Thomas Sherples and John 
Osbaldston. — Ibid, p. 544. 

32 NOTES. 

K 4 6. " Picked her off."] Threw her off. 

L a. " Hugh Walshmans."] The wife of Hugh Walshman, of Samles- 
bury, is mentioned in the list of recusants; Baines, vol. i. p. 544. 

L 2 a. "Brought a little child"] The evidence against the Pendle 
witches exhibits meagreness and poverty of imagination compared with the 
accumulated horrors with which the Jesuit, fresh, it may be, from Bodin 
and Delrio, made his " fire burn and cauldron bubble." With respect to this 
old story of the magical use made of the corpses of infants, Ben Jonson, in 
a note on 

• I had a dagger : what did I with that ? 
Killed an infant to have his fat ;" 

tells us with great gravity : 

Their killing of infants is common, both for confection of their ointment (whereto 
one ingredient is the fat boiled, as I have shewed before out of Paracelsus and Porta) 
as also out of a lust to do murder. Sprenger in Mai. Malefic, reports that a witch, 
a midwife in the diocese of Basil, confessed to have killed above forty infants (ever 
as they were new born, with pricking them in the brain with a needle) which she 
had offered to the devil. See the story of the three witches in Bern. Dcemonola 
lib. cap. 3, about the end of the chapter. And M. Phillippo Ludwigus Elich 
Qucest. 8. And that it is no new rite, read the practice of Canidia, Epod. Horat. 
lib. ode 5, and Lucan, lib. 6, whose admirable verses I can never be weary to tran- 
scribe : — 

Nee cessant at caede manus, si sanguine vivo 

Est opus, erumpat jugulo qui primus aperto. 

Nee refugit caedes, vivum si sacra cruorem 

Extaque funereae poscunt trepidantia mensae. 

Vulnere si ventris, non qua natura vocabat, 

Extrahitur partus calidus ponendus in aris ; 

Et quoties saevis opus est, et fortibus umbris 

Ipsa facit maneis. Hominum mors omnis in usu est. 

Ben Johnson's Works, by Gifford, vol. vii. p. 130. 

L 2 a. " They said they would annoint themselues."] Ben Jonson in- 
forms us : 

"When they are to be transported from place to place, they use to anoint them- 
selves, and sometimes the things they ride on. Beside Apul. testimony, see these 
later, Remig. Damonolatrice lib 1. cap. 14. Delrio, Disquis. Mag. I. 2. qucest. 16. 
Bodin Dcemonoman. lib. 2 c. 14. Barthol. de Spina, qucest. de Strigib. Phillippo 

NOTES. 33 

Ludwigus Elich. qucest. 10. Paracelsus in magn. et occul. Philosophia, teacheth 
the confection. Unguentum ex came recens natorum infantium, in pulmenti, 
forma coctum, et cum herbis somniferis, quales sunt Papaver, Solanum, Cicuta, 
&c. And Giov. Bapti. Porta, lib. 2. Mag. Natur. cap. 16. — Ben Jonson's Works 
by Giffordy vol. vii. p. 119. 

L 3 a. "Did carrie her into the loft."'] There is something in this 
strange tissue of incoherencies, for knavery has little variety, which forcibly 
reminds us of the inventions of Elizabeth Canning, who ought to have lived 
in the days when witchcraft was part of the popular creed. What an 
admirable witch poor old Mary Squires would have made, and how bril- 
liantly would her persecutor have shone in the days of the Baxters and 
Glanvilles, who acquitted herself so creditably in those of the Fieldings and 
the Hills. 

L 4 b. " Robert Ifovlden, Esquire."] This individual would be of the 
ancient family of Holden, of Holden, the last male heir of which died 
without issue, 1792. (See Whitakers Whalley, 418.) 

L 4 b. " Sir John Southworth."] In this family the manor of Samles- 
bury remained for three hundred and fifty years. This was, probably, the 
John (for the pedigree contained in Whitakers WhaUey, p. 430, does not 
give the clearest light on the subject) who married Jane, daughter of Sir 
Richard Sherburne, of Stonyhurst, and who took a great lead amongst 
the Catholics of Lancashire. What was the degree of relationship between 
Sir John and the husband of the accused, Jane Southworth, there is nothing 
in the descent to show. Family bickering might have a share, as well as 
superstition, in the opinion he entertained, " that she was an evil woman." 
Of the old hall at Samlesbury, the residence of the South worths, a most 
interesting account will be found in Whitakers Whalley, p. 431. He con- 
siders the centre of very high antiquity, probably not later than Edward 
III ; and observes, " There is about the house a profusion and bulk of oak 
that must almost have laid prostrate a forest to erect it." 

M b. " The particular points of the Euidence."] What a waste of 
ingenuity Master Potts displays in this recapitulation, where he is merely 
slaying the slain, and where his wisdom was not needed. Had he applied 
it to the service of the Pendle witches, he would have found still grosser 
contrarieties, and as great absurdity. But in that case, there was no horror 


34 XOTES. 

of Popery to sharpen his faculties, or Jesuit in the background to call his 
humanity into play. 

M 2. " The wrinkles of an old wiues face is good euidence to the Iurie 
against a Witch."] Si sic omnia! For once the worthy clerk in court 
has a lucid interval, and speaks the language of common sense. 

M 2. " But old Chattox had Fancie."~\ A great truth, though Master 
Potts might not be aware of the extent of it. 

M4«. " M. Leigh, a very religious Preacher"] Parson of Standish, a 
man memorable in his day. He published several pieces, amongst others the 
two following: 1. " The Drumme of Devotion," by W. Leigh, of Standish, 
1613. — 2. "News of a Prodigious Monster in Aldington, in the Parish of 
Standish, in Lancashire," 1613, 4to, which show him to have been an 
adept in the science of title-making. He was one of the tutors of Prince 
Henry, and was great-grandfather of Dr. Leigh, author of the History of 

N3i. " The Arraignment and Triall of Anne Redferne." This poor 
woman seems to have been regularly hunted to death by her prosecutors, 
who pursued her with all the dogged pertinacity of blood-hounds. Neither 
the imploring appeal for mercy, in her case, from her wretched mother, who 
did not ask for any in her own, nor the want of even the shadow of a 
ground for the charge, had the slightest effect upon the besotted prejudices 
of the judge and jury. Acquitted on one indictment, she is now put on 
her trial on another ; the imputed crime being her having caused the death 
of a person, who did not even accuse her of being accessory to it, nearly 
eighteen years before, by witchcraft ; the only evidence, true or false, being, 
that she had been seen, about the same period, making figures of clay or 
marl. Her real offence, it may well be conjectured, was her having 
rejected the improper advances of the ill-conditioned young man whose 
death she was first indicted for procuring, and to which circumstance the 
rancour of his relations, the prosecutors, may evidently be traced. It is 
gratifying to know that she had firmness of mind to persist in the declara- 
tion of her innocence to the last. 

2 a. "Alice Natter."] We now come to a person of a different 

NOTES. 35 

description from any of those who have preceded as parties accused, and on 
whose fate some extraordinary mystery seems to hang. Alice Nutter was 
not, like the others, a miserable mendicant, but was a lady of large posses- 
sions, of a respectable family, and with children whose position appears to 
have been such as, it might have been expected, would have afforded her 
the means of escaping the fate which overtook her humbler companions. 

" I knew her a good woman and well bred, 
Of an unquestion'd carriage, well reputed 
Amongst her neighbours, reckoned with the best." 

Heywood's Lancashire Witches. 

She is described as the wife of Richard Nutter of the Rough Lee, and 
mother of Miles Nutter, who were in all likelihood nearly related to the 
other Nutters whose descent has been given. The tradition is, that she 
was closely connected by relationship or marriage with Eleanor Nutter, the 
daughter of Ellis Nutter of Pendle Forest, the grandmother of Archbishop 

(Tillotson. That she was the victim of a foul and atrocious conspiracy, in 
which the movers were some of her own family, there seems no reason to 
doubt. The anxiety of her children to induce her to confess may possibly 
have originated in no impure or sinister motive, but it is difficult altogether 
to dismiss from the mind the suspicion that her wealth was her great mis- 
fortune ; and that to secure it within their grasp her own household were 
passive, if not active, agents in her destruction. Any thing more childish 
or absurd than the evidence against her — as, for instance, that she joyned 
in killing Henry Mitton because he refused a penny to Old Demdike — it 
would not be easy, even from the records of witch trials, to produce. As 
regards Alice Nutter, Potts is singularly meagre, and it is to be lamented 
that the deficiency of information cannot at present be supplied. Almost 
the only fact he furnishes us with is, that she died maintaining her innocence. 
It would have been most interesting to have had the means of ascertaining 
how she conducted herself at her trial and after her condemnation ; and 
how she met the iniquitous injustice of her fate, sharpened, as it must have 
been, by the additional bitterness of the insults and execrations of the blind 
and infuriated populace at her execution. It is far from improbable that 
some of the correspondence now deposited in the family archives in the 
county hitherto unpublished may ultimately furnish these particulars. 

Alice Nutter was doubtless the original of the story of which Heywood 
availed himself in The Late Lancashire Witches, 1634, 4to, which is 

ee 2 

36 NOTES. 

frequently noticed by the writers of the 17th century — that the wife of a 
Lancashire country gentleman had been detected in practising witchcraft 
and unlawful arts, and condemned and executed. In that play there can be 
little hesitation in ascribing to Heywood the scenes in which Mr. Generous 
and his wife are the interlocutors, and to Broome, Heywood's coadjutor, the 
subordinate and farcical portions. It is a very unequal performance, but 
not destitute of those fine touches, which Heywood is never without, in the 
characters of English country gentlemen and the pathos of domestic 
tragedy. Tne following scene, which I am tempted to extract, though 
very inferior to the noble ones in his Woman Killed by Kindness^ between 
Mr. and Mrs. Frankford, which it somewhat resembles in character, is not 
unworthy of this great and truly national dramatic writer : — 

Mr. Generous. Wife. Robin, a groom. 

Gen. My blood is turn'd to ice, and all my vitals 
Have ceas'd their working. Dull stupidity 
Surpriseth me at once, and hath arrested 
That vigorous agitation, which till now 
Exprest a life within me. I, methinks, 
Am a meer marble statue, and no man. 
Unweave my age, O time, to my first thread ; 
Let me lose fifty years, in ignorance spent ; 
That, being made an infant once again, 
I may begin to know. What, or where am I, 
To be thus lost in wonder ? 

Wife. Sir. 

Gen. Amazement still pursues me, how am I chang'd, 
Or brought ere I can understand myself 
Into this new world ! 

Bob. You will believe no witches ? 

Gen. This makes me believe all, aye, anything ; 
And that myself am nothing. Prithee, Robin, 
Lay me to myself open ; what art thou, 
Or this new transform'd creature ? 

Bob. I am Robin ; 
And this your wife, my mistress. 

Gen. Tell me, the earth 
Shall leave its seat, and mount to kiss the moon ; 
Or that the moon, enamour'd of the earth, 
Shall leave her sphere, to stoop to us thus low. 

What, what's this in my hand, that at an instant 4 " 

Can from a four-legg'd creature make a thing 
So like a wife ? 

NOTES. 37 

Bob. A bridle ; a jugling bridle, Sir. 

Gen. A bridle ! Hence, enchantment. 
A viper were more safe within my hand, 
Than this charm'd engine. — 
A witch ! my wife a witch ! 
The more I strive to unwind 
Myself from this meander, I the more 
Therein am intricated. Prithee, woman, 
Art thou a witch % 

Wife. It cannot be denied, 
I am such a curst creature. 

Gen. Keep aloof : 
And do not come too near me. O my trust ; 
Have I, since first I understood myself, 
Been of my soul so chary, still to study 
What best was for its health, to renounce all 
The works of that black fiend with my best force ; 
And hath that serpent twined me so about, 
That I must lie so often and so long 
With a devil in my bosom ? 

Wife. Pardon, Sir. [She looks down.] 

Gen. Pardon ! can such a thing as that be hoped ? 
Lift up thine eyes, lost woman, to yon hills ; 
It must be thence expected : look not down 
Unto that horrid dwelling, which thou hast sought 
At such dear rate to purchase. Prithee, tell me, 
(For now I can believe) art thou a witch ? 

Wife. I am. 

Gen. With that word I am thunderstruck, 
And know not what to answer ; yet resolve me. 
Hast thou made any contract with that fiend, 
The enemy of mankind ? 

Wife. O I have. 

Gen. What ? and how far ? 

Wife. I have promis'd him my soul. 

Gen. Ten thousand times better thy body had 
Been promis'd to the stake ; aye, and mine too, 
To have suffer'd with thee in a hedge of flames, 

Than such a compact ever had been made. Oh 

Resolve me, how far doth that contract stretch ? 

Wife. What interest in this Soul myself could claim, 
I freely gave him ; but his part that made it 
I still reserve, not being mine to give. 

Gen. O cunning devil : foolish woman, know, 

EE 3 

o8 NOTES. 

Where he can claim but the least little part, 

He will usurp the whole. Thou 'rt a lost woman. 

Wife. I hope, not so. 

Gen. Why, hast thou any hope ? 

Wife. Yes, sir, I have. 

Gen. Make it appear to me. 

Wife. I hope I never bargain'd for that fire, 
Further than penitent tears have power to quench. 

Gen. I would see some of them. 

Wife. You behold them now 
(If you look on me with charitable eyes) 
Tinctur'd in blood, blood issuing from the heart. 
Sir, I am sorry ; when I look towards heaven, 
I beg a gracious pardon ; when on you, 
Methinks your native goodness should not be 
Less pitiful than they ; 'gainst both I have err'd ; 
From both I beg atonement. 

Gen. May I presume 't ? 

Wife. I kneel to both your mercies. 

Gen. Knowest thou what 
A witch is ? 

Wife. Alas, none better ; 
Or after mature recollection can be 
More sad to think on 't. 

Gen. Tell me, are those tears 
As full of true hearted penitence, 
As mine of sorrow to behold what state, 
What desperate state, thou 'rt fain in ? 

Wife. Sir, they are. 

Gen. Bise ; and, as I do you, so heaven pardon me ; 
We all offend, but from such falling off 
Defend us ! Well, I do remember, wife, 
When I first took thee, 'twas for good and bad : 
O change thy bad to good, that I may keep thee 
(As then we past our faiths) 'till Death us sever. 
O woman, thou hast need to weep thyself 
Into a fountain, such a penitent spring 
As may have power to quench invisible flames ; 
In which my eyes shall aid : too little, all. 

Late Lancashire Witches, Act 4. 

P 2 a. " Being examined by my Lord."] She had evidently learned 
her lesson well ; but this was, with all submission to his Lordship, if 
adopted as a test, a mighty poor one. Jennet Device must have known 

NOTES. 39 

well the persons of the parties she accused, and who were now upon their 
trial, as they were all her near neighbours. 

P 2 a. " Whether she knew lohan a Style ?"] His Lordship's introduc- 
tion of this apocryphal legal personage on such an occasion is very amusing. 
Had he studied Littleton and Perkins a little less, and given some attention 
to the Lancashire dialect, and some also to the study of that great book, in 
which even a judge may find valuable matter, the book of human nature, 
he might have been more successfull in his examination. Jack's o' Dick's 
o' Harry's would have been more likely to have been recognised as a 
veritable person of this world by Jennet Device, than such a name as 
Johan a Style ; which, though very familiar at Westminster, would scarcely 
have its prototype at Pendle. But Jennet Device, young as she was, in 
natural shrewdness was far more than a match for his lordship. 

P 3 a. " Katherine Rewit, alias Movld-heeles."] Of this person, who 
comes next in the list of witches, our information is very scanty. She was 
not of Pendle, but of Colne; and as her husband is described as a 
" clothier," may be presumed to have been in rather better circumstances 
than Elizabeth Southernes or Anne Whittle's families. She made no con- 

P4«. " Anne Foulds of Colne. Michael Hartleys of Colne"] Folds 
and Hartley are still the names of families at and in the neighbourhood of 

P 4 a. " Had then in hanck a child"] The meaning of this term is 
clear, the origin rather dubious. It may come from the Scotch word, to 
hanck, i. e. to have in holdfast or secure, vide Jamieson's Scotch Dictionary, 
tit. hanck, or from handkill, to murder, vide Jamieson, under that word ; 
or lastly, may be metaphorically used, from hanck, also signifying a skein 
of yarn or worsted which is tied or trussed up. 

Q 2 a. " John Bulcocke, lane Bulcocke his mother."] The condition of 
these persons is not stated. It may be conjectured that they were of the 
lowest class. 

Q 3 a. "At the Barre hauing formerly confessed"] Why is not their 
confession given ? 

40 NOTES. 

Q 3 a. " Crying out in very violent and outragious manner, euen to the 
gallowes."] The latter end of these unfortunate people was perhaps similar 
to that of Isobel Crawford, executed in Scotland the year after for witch- 
craft, who, on being sentenced, openly denied all her former confessions, 
and died without any sign of repentance, oifering repeated interruption to 
the minister in his prayer, and refusing to pardon the executioner. 

Q 4 a. " Master Thomas Lister of Westby."] See note on p. Y a. 

Q 4 b. " The said Bulcockes wife doth know of some Witches to bee about 
Padyham and Burnley?] Precious evidence this to put the lives of two 
poor creatures into jeopardy. 

R a. " Accused the said Iohn Bulcock to turne the Spitt there."] What 
a fact this would have been for De Lancre. With all his accurate statistics 
on the subject of the witches' Sabbath, he was not aware that a turnspit 
was a necessary officer on such occasions, as well as a master of ceremonies. 
This artful and well instructed jade, Jennet Device, must have borne 
especial malice against John Bulcock. 

R b. " The names of the Witches at the Great Assembly and Feast at 
Malking-Tower, viz. vpon Good-Friday last, 1612."] In this list of four- 
teen individuals, Master Potts has omitted " the painful steward so careful 
to provide mutton," James Device, who made up the number to fifteen. 
Of these persons seven were not indicted : Jennet Hargraves, the wife of 
Hugh Hargraves, of Barley under Pendle ; Elizabeth Hargraves, the wife 
of Christopher Hargraves ; Christopher Howgate, the son of Old Demdike ; 
Christopher Hargraves, who is described as of Thurniholme, or Thorn- 
holme, and as Christopher o' Jacks, and was husband of Elizabeth Har- 
graves ; Grace Hay, of Padiham ; Anne Crunkshey, of Marchden, or more 
properly, Cronkshaw of Marsden; and Elizabeth Howgate, the wife of 
Christopher Howgate. The two Howgates were, it may be, the "one 
Holgate and his wife," mentioned in Robinson's deposition in 1 633. Alice 
Graie, or Gray, included in the list, was indicted, though no copy of the 
indictment is afforded by Potts, and, singular as it may seem, acquitted. 
Richard Miles' wife, of the Rough Lee, stated to have been present in some 
of the depositions, (G 3 b,) was, beyond doubt, Alice Nutter, so called as 
the wife of Richard and mother of Miles Nutter. 

It may afford matter for speculation, whether any real meeting took 

NOTES. 41 

place of any of the persons above enumerated, which gave occasion for the 
monstrous versions of the witnesses at this trial. It is far from unlikely, that 
on the apprehension and commitment of Old Demdike, Old Chattox, Alizon 
Device, and Anne Redfern to Lancaster, a meeting would take place of 
their near relations, and others who might attend from curiosity, or from its 
being rumoured that they were themselves implicated by the confessions of 
those apprehended, and who by such attendance sealed their dooms. In 
all similar fabrications there is generally some slight foundation of fact, 
some scintilla of homely truth, from which, like the inverted apex of a 
pyramid, the disproportioned fabric expands. It is possible that, from the 
simple occurrence of an unusual attendance at Malking Tower on Good 
Friday, not unnatural under the circumstances, some of the witnesses, 
ignorant and easily persuaded, might be afterwards led to believe in the 
existence of those monstrous superadditions with which the convention was 
afterwards clothed. However this may be, there must have been at hand 
for working up the materials into a plausible form, some drill sergeant of . 
evidence behind the curtain, who had his own interest to serve or revenge^ 
to gratify. The two particulars in the narrative that one feels least disposed 
to question, are, that James Device stole a wether from John Robinson of 
Barley, to provide a family dinner on Good Friday, and that when the meat 
was roasted John Bulcock performed the humble, but very necessary, duty 
of turning the spit. 

R 3 a. " My Lord Gerrard."] Thomas Gerard, son and heir of Sir 
Gilbert Gerard, Master of the Robes 23d Elizabeth, was raised to the peer- 
age by the title of Lord Gerard of Gerard's Bromley, in Staffordshire, 1603. 
He died 1618. 

S a. " Kniues, Ulsons, and Sickles." In the Promptorium Parvu- 
lorum, p. 138, to Elsyn (elsyng k ) Sibula, Mr. Way appends this note : " This 
word occurs in the Gloss on Gautier de Bibelesworth, Arund. MS. 220, 
where a buckled girdle is described : — 

" Een isy doyt le hardiloun (>e tunnge) 
Passer par tru de subiloun (a bore of an alsene.) 

"An elsyne, — acus, subula. Cath. Ang. Sibula, an elsyn, an alle or a bodkyn. 
Ortus. In the inventory of the goods of a merchant at Newcastle, A. D. 
1571, occur, 'vj. doss' elsen heftes, 12d; 1 clowte and ^ a C elsen blades, 


42 NOTES. 

viijs. viijt/; xiij. clowtes of talier, needles, &c.' Wills and Inventories pub- 
lished by the Surtees Society, 1. 361. The term is derived from the 
French alene ; elson for cordwayners, alesne. Palsg. In Yorkshire and 
some other parts of England an awl is still called an elsen." 

S b. " Which the said Alizon confessing."} In the case of this paralytic 
pedlar, John Law, his mishap could scarcely be called such, as it would 
for the remainder of his life, be an all-sufficient stock-in-trade for him, 
and popular wonder and sympathy, without the judge's interposition, would 
provide for his relief and maintenance. The near apparent connection and 
correspondence of the damnum minatum and damnum secutum, in this 
instance, imposed upon this unfortunate woman, as it had done upon many 
others, and gave to her confession an earnestness which would appear to 
the unenlightened spectator to spring only from reality and truth. 

S 3 b. " Margaret Pearson."} This Padiham witch fared better than 
her neighbours, being sentenced only to the pillory. Nothing affords a 
stronger proof of the vindictive pertinacity with which these prosecutions 
were carried on than the fact of this old and helpless creature being put on 
her trial three several times upon such evidence as follows. Chattox, like 
many other persons in her situation, was disposed to have as many compa- 
nions in punishment, crime or no crime, as she could compass, and de*- 
nounced her accordingly : " The said Pearson's wife is as ill as shee." 

T a. " The said Margerie did carrie the said Toade out of the said 
house in a paire oftonges."] This toad was disposed of more easily than 
that of Julian Cox, as to which see Glanvil's Collection of Relations, 
p. 192: — 

Another witness swore, that as he passed hy Cox her door, she was taking a pipe 
of tobacco upon the threshold of her door, and invited him to come in and take a 
pipe, which he did. And as he was talking Julian said to him, Neighbour, look 
what a pretty thing there is. He look't down, and there was a monstrous great 
toad betwixt his leggs, staring him in the face. He endeavoured to kill it by spurn- 
ing it, but could not hit it. Whereupon Julian bad him forbear, and it would do 
him no hurt. But he threw down his pipe and went home, (which was about two 
miles off of Julian Cox her house,) and told his family what had happened, and that 
he believed it was one of Julian Cox her devils. After, he was taking a pipe of 
tobacco at home, and the same toad appeared betwixt his leggs. He took the toad 
out to kill it, and to his thinking cut it in several pieces, but returning to his pipe, 

NOTES. 4') 

the toad still appeared. lie endeavoured to burn it, but could not. At length he 
took a switch and beat it. The toad ran several times about the room to avoid him 
he still pursuing it with correction. At length the toad cryed and vanish't, and he 
was never after troubled with it. 

Dr. More's comment on the circumstance is written with all the se- 
riousness so important a part of a witch's supellex deserves. He com- 
mences defending the huntsman, who swore that he hunted a hare, aud 
when he came to take it up, he found it to be Julian Cox : 

Those half-witted people thought he swore false, I suppose because they ima- 
gined that what he told implied that Julian Cox was turned into an hare. Which 
she was not, nor did his report imply any such real metamorphosis of her body, but 
that these ludicrous daemons exhibited to the sight of this huntsman and his doggs 
the shape of an Hare, one of them turning himself into such a form, and others 
hurrying on the body of Julian near the same place, and at the same swiftness, but 
interposing betwixt that hare-like spectre and her body, modifying the air so that 
the scene there, to the beholders sight, was as if nothing but air were there, and a 
shew of earth perpetually suited to that where the hare passed. As I have heard 
of some painters that have drawn the sky in an huge large landskip, so lively that 
the birds have flown against it, thinking it free air, and so^iave Tallen down. And 
if painters and juglers by the tricks of legerdemain can do such strange feats to the 
deceiving of the sight, it is no wonder that these airy invisible spirits as far surpass 
them in all such prestigious doings as the air surpasses the earth for subtilty. 

And the like praestigiae may be in the toad. It might be a real toad (though ac- 
tuated and guided by a daemon) which was cut in pieces, and that also which was 
whipt about, and at last snatcht out of sight (as if it had vanished) by these aerial 
hocus-pocus's. And if some juglers have tricks to take hot coals into their mouth 
without hurt, certainly it is not surprising that some small attempt did not suffice 
to burn that toad. That such a toad, sent by a witch and crawling up the body of 
the man of the house as he sate by the fire's side, was overmastered by him and his 
wife together, and burnt in the fire ; I have heard credibly reported by one of the 
Isle of Ely. Of these dcemoniack vermin, I have heard other stories also, as of a 
rat that followed a man some score of miles trudging through thick and thin along 
icith him. So little difficulty is there in that of the toad. — GlanviVs Collection of 
Relations, p. 200. 

T 2 a. " Isabel Robey." This person was of Windle, in the parish of 
Prescot, a considerable distance from Pendle. The Gerards were lords of 
the manor of Windle. Sir Thomas Gerard, before whom the examinations 
were taken, was created baronet, 22nd May, 9th James I. ; and thrice 
married. From him the present Sir John Gerard, of New Hall, near 

ff 2 

44 NOTES. 

Warrington, is descended. Sir Thomas was determined that the hundred of 
West Derby should have its witch as well as the other parts of the county. 
A more melancholy tissue of absurd and incoherent accusations than those 
against this last of the prisoners convicted on this occasion, it would not be 
easy to find ; who was hanged, for all that appears, because one person 
was suddenly "pinched on her thigh, as she thought, with four fingers 
and a thumb," and because another was "sore pained with a great warch 
in his bones." 

T 2 a. " This Countie of Lancaster, which now may lawfully bee said to 
abound asmuch in Witches of diners kindes as Seminaries, lesuites, and 
Papists."] Truly, the county palatine was in sad case, according to Master 
Potts's account. If the crop of each of these was over abundant, it was 
from no fault of the learned judges, who, in their commissions of Oyer 
and Terminer, subjected it pretty liberally to the pruning-hook of the 

T 2 a. " This lamentable and wofull Tragedie, wherein his Maiestie 
hath lost so many Subjects, Mothers their Children, Fathers their Friends and 
Kinsfolk."] The Lancashire bill of mortality, under the head witchcraft, so 
far as it can be collected from this tract, will run thus : — 

1. Robert Nutter, of Greenhead, in Pendle." 

2. Richard Assheton, son of Richard Assheton, of Downham, Esquire. 

3. Child of Richard Baldwin, of Wheethead, within the forest of Pendle. 

4. John Device, or Davies, of Pendle. 

5. Anne Nutter, daughter of Anthony Nutter, of Pendle. 

6. Child of John Moore, of Higham. 

7. Hugh Moore, of Pendle. 

8. John Robinson, alias Swyer. 

9. James Robinson. 

1 0. Henry Mytton, of the Rough Lee. 

11. Anne Townley, wife of Henry Townley, of the Carr, gentleman. 

12. John Duckworth. 

13. John Hargraves, of Goldshaw Booth. 

14. Blaze Hargraves, of Higham. 

15. Christopher Nutter. 

16. Anne Folds, of Colne. 

NOTES. 45 

Sixteen persons reported dead of this common epidemic, besides a 
countless number with pains and " starkness in their limbs," and " a great 
warch in their bones !" No wonder that Doctors Bromley and Potts thought 
active treatment necessary, with a decided preference for hemp, as the 
leading specific. 

T 3 &. " With great warch in his bones." Warch is a word well known 
and still used in this sense, i. e., pain, in Lancashire. 

T 4 £. " The said Peter was now satisfied that the said Isabel Robey was 
no Witch, by sending to one Halseworths, which they call a wiseman."] I 
honour the memory of this Halsworth, or Houldsworth, as I suppose it 
should be spelled, for he was indeed a wise man in days when wisdom was 
an extremely scarce commodity. 

T 4 b. " To abide vpon it"] i. £., my abiding opinion is. 

X a. " Elizabeth Astley, John Ramsden, Alice Gray, Isabel Sidegraues, 
Lawrence Hay."] The specific charges against these persons, with the 
exception of Alice Gray, do not appear, nor is it said where their places of 
residence were. Alice Gray was reputed to have been at the meeting of 
witches at Malkin's Tower, and to her the judge refers, perhaps, in particu- 
lar, when he says, " Without question, there are amongst you that are as 
deepe in this action as any of them that are condemned to die for their 

X b. " The Execution of the Witches."] We could have dispensed 
with many of the flowers of rhetoric with which the pages of this discovery 
are strewed, if Master Potts would have favoured us with a plain, unvar- 
nished account of what occurred at this execution, It is here, in the most 
interesting point of all, that his narrative, in other respects so full and 
abundant, stops short, and seems curtailed of its just proportions. The 
" learned and worthy preacher," to whom the prisoners were commended 
by the judge, w r as probably Mr. William Leigh, of Standish, before men- 
tioned. Amongst his papers or correspondence, if they should happen to 
have been preserved, some account may eventually be found of the sad 
closing scene of these melancholy victims of superstition. 

f P 3 

46 NOTES. 

X 2 a. " Neither can I paint in extraordinarie tearmes."~\ The worthy 
clerk is too modest. He is a great painter, the Tintoretto of witchcraft. 

Y a. " Hauing cut off Thomas Lister ', Esquire, father to this gentleman 
now liuing."] Thomas Lister, of Westby, ancestor of the Listers, Lords 
Kibblesdale, married Jane, daughter of John Greenacres, Esquire, of Worston, 
county of Lancaster, and was buried at Gisburn, February 8th, 1 607. His son, 
Thomas Lister, referred to as the " gentleman now living," married Jane, 
daughter of Thomas Heber, Esq., of Marton, after mentioned, and was 
buried at Gisburn, July 10th, 1619. 

Y a. " Was Indicted and Arraigned for the murder of a Child of one 
Dodg-sonnes."~\ One acquittal was no protection to these unhappy creatures. 
It caused only additional exasperation, and, sooner or later, they were 
brought within what Donne calls "the hungry statutes' gaping jaws." 
Whether superstition or malice prompted this prosecution, on the part of Mr. 
Lister, it is difficult to say. Some grudge he entertained, or cause of offence 
he had taken up against this Jennet Preston, might be her death warrant 
in those days, when it was penal for a woman to be old, helpless, ugly, and 
poor. She was not so fortunate as the females tried at York, nine years after- 
wards, for bewitching the children of Edward Fairfax, of Fuyston, in the 
forest of Knaresborough, to whom we owe the only English translation of 
Tasso worthy of the name. These females, six in number, were indicted 
at two successive assizes, and every effort was made by the 

" Prevailing poet ! whose undoubting mind 
Believed the magic wonders which he sung," 

to procure their conviction. Never was a more unequal contest. On the 
one side was a relentless antagonist, armed with wealth, influence, learning, 
and accomplishments, and whose family connections gave him an unlimited 
power in the county ; and on the other, six helpless persons, whose sex, 
age, and poverty were almost sufficient for their condemnation, without any 
evidence at all. Yet, owing to the magnanimous firmness of the judge, 
whose name, deserving of immortal honour, I regret has not been pre- 
served, these efforts were frustrated, and the women accused delivered from 
the gulph which yawned before them. The disappointment he experienced 
in this instance, in being defrauded, as he thought, of a conviction for which 

NOTES. 47 

lie had strained every nerve and sinew, and in not being allowed to render 
the forest of Knaresborough as famous as that of Pendle, cast a gloom of 
despondency over the remaining days of this admirable poet, who has left a 
narration of the whole transaction, of most singular interest and curiosity, 
yet unpublished. The MSS. now in my possession, and which came from 
Mr. Bright's collection, consists of seventy-eight closely-written folio pages. 
It is entitled "A Discourse of Witchcraft, as it was enacted in the family of 
Mr. Edward Fairfax, of Fuystone, coun. Ebor, 1621." From page 78 to 
144 are a series of ninety-three most extraordinary and spirited sketches, 
made with the pen, of the witches, devils, monsters, and apparitions referred 
to in the narrative. 

Y 2 a. " Master Heyber."~\ This was Thomas Hayber, or Heber, of 
Marton, in Craven, Esquire, who was buried at Marton, 7th February, 1633. 
He was the ancestor of Bishop Keginald Heber and the late Richard 
Heber, Esq. 

Y 3 a. " The said Iennet Preston comming to touch the dead cmpes, 
they bled fresh bloud presently."] On the popular superstition of touching 
the corpse of a murdered person, as an ordeal or test for the discovery of 
the innocence or guilt of suspected murderers, the reader cannot better be 
referred than to the very learned and elaborate essay in Pitcairne's Criminal 
Trials, vol. iii. p. 182-189. Amongst the authors there quoted, Webster 
is omitted, who, (see Displaying of supposed Witchcraft, p. 304,) discusses 
the point at considerable length, and with an earnest and implicit faith 
singularly at variance with his enlightened scepticism in other matters. 
But there were regions of superstition in which even this Sampson of logic 
became imbecile and powerless. The rationale of the bleeding of a mur- 
dered corpse at the touch of the murderer is given by Sir Kenelm Digby 
with his usual force and spirit : 

To this cause, peradventure, may be reduced the strange effect which is fre- 
quently seen in England, when, at the approach of the Murderer, the slain body 
suddenly bleedeth afresh. For certainly the Souls of them that are treacherously 
murdered by surprise, use to leaue their bodies with extreme unwillingness, and 
with vehement indignation against them that force them to so unprovided and 
abhorred a passage ! That Soul, then, to wreak its evil talent against the hated 
Murderer, and to draw a just and desired revenge upon his head, would do all it 
can to manifest the author of the fact ! To speak it cannot — for in itself it 
wanteth the organs of voice ; and those it is parted from are now grown too heavy, 
and are too benummed, for to give motion unto : Yet some change it desireth to 

48 NOTES. 

make in the body, which it hath so vehement inclination to ; and therefore is the 
aptest for it to work upon. It must then endeavour to cause a motion in the 
subtilest and most fluid parts (and consequently the most moveable ones) of it. 
This can be nothing but the blood, which then being violently moved, must needs 
gush out at those places where it findeth issue ! 

In the two following Scotch cases of witchcraft, this test was resorted to 
The first was that of 

Marioun Peebles, 1 alias Pardone, spouse to Swene, in Hildiswick, who was, 
on March 22, 1644, sentenced to be strangled at a stake, and burnt to ashes, at the 
Hill of Berrie, for Witchcraft and Murder. Marion and her husband having 
' ane deadlie and venefical malice in her heart' against Edward Halcro in Overure, 
and being determined * to destroy and put him down,' being ' transformed in the 
lyknes of ane pellack-quhaill, (the Devill changing her spirit, quhilk fled in the 
same quhaill,') and the said Edward and other four individuals being in a fishing- 
boat, coming from the Sea, at the North-banks of Hildiswick, ' on ane fair morning, 
did cum under the said boat, and overturnit her with ease, and drowned and 
devoired thame in the sey, right at the shore, when there wis na danger wtherwayis.' 
The bodies of Halcro and another of these hapless fishermen having been found 
Marion and Swene f wir sent for, and brought to see thame, and to lay thair hands 

on thame, dayis after said death and away-casting, quhaire thair bluid was 

evanished and desolved, from every natural cours or caus, shine, and run ; the said 

umquhill Edward bled at the collir-bain or craig-bane, and the said , 2 in 

the hand and fingers, gushing out bluid thairat, to the great admiration of the 
beholders — and revelation of the judgement of the Almytie ! And by which lyk 
occasionis and miraculous works of God, made manifest in Murders and the Mur- 
derers ; whereby, be many frequent occasiones brought to light, and the Murderers 
be the said proof brought to judgment, conuict and condemned, not only in this 
Kingdom, also this countrie, but lykwayis in maist forrin Christiane Kingdomis ; 
and be so manie frequent precedentis and practising of and tuitching Murderis and 
Murdereris, notourlie known : So, the forsaid Murder and Witchcraft of the saidis 
persons, with the rest of their companions, through your said Husband's deed, art, 
part, rad, 3 and counsall, is manifest and cleir to all, not onlie through and by the 
foirsaid precedentis of your malice, wicked and malishes 1 practises, by Witchcraft* 
Confessionis, and Declarationis of the said umquill Janet Fraser, Witch, revealed 
to her, as said is, and quha wis desyrit by him to concur and assist with you to the 
doing thereof; but lykways be the declaration and revelation of the justice and 
judgementis of God, through the said issuing of bluid from the bodies /' &c. 

A similar and very remarkable instance is related in the following Triall : In the 
Dittay of Christian Wilson, alias the Lanthorne, b accused of Murder, Witch- 
craft, &c, (which is founded upon the examinations of James Wilson, Abraham 

1 See Dr. Hibbert's " History of Orkney," &c., to which this remarkable Trial is ap- 
pended. 2 The name left blank. 3 Rede ; advice. 4 Malicious. 5 The name 
given at her baptism by the Devil. From " Collection of Original Documents," belong- 
ing to the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, MS. As a specimen of the other charges* 

NOTES. 49 

Macmillan, William Crichton, and Fyfe and George Erskine, &c. led before Sir 
William Murray of Newtoun, and other Commissioners, at Dalkeith, Jun. 14, lb'61,) 
it is stated, that * Ther being enimitie betuixt the said Christiane and Alexander 
Wilsone, her brother, and shoe having often tymes threatned him, at length, about 
7 or 8 monthes since, altho' the said Alexander was sene that day of his death, at 
three houres afternoone, in good health, walking about his bussnesse and office ; 
yitt, at fyve howres in that same night, he was fownd dead, lying in his owne 
howse, naked as he was borne, with his face tome and rent, without any appearance 
of a spot of blood either wpon his bodie or neigh to it. And altho' many of the 
neiboures in the toune (Dalkeith) come into his howse to see the dead corpe, yitt 
shoe newar offered to come, howbeit her dwelling was nixt adjacent thairto ; nor 
had shoe so much as any seiming greiff for his death. Bot the Minister and 
Bailliffes of the towne, taking great suspitione of her, in respect of her cairiage 
comand it that shoe showld be browght in ; bot when shoe come, shoe come trem- 
bling all the way to the howse — bot shoe refuisecl to come nigh the corps or to 
tditch it saying, that shoe * nevir tuitched a dead corpe in her lyfe !" Bot being 
arnestly desyred by the Minister, Bailliffes, and hir brother's friends who was 
killed, that shoe wold " bot tuitch the cor pes softlie," shoe granted to doe it — but 
before shoe did it, the Sone being shyning in at the howse, shoe exprest her selfe 
thus, humbly desyring, that " as the Lord made the Sone to shyne and give light 
into that howse, that also he wald give light to discovering of that Murder!" And 
with these words, shoe tuitcheing the wound of the dead man, verie saftlie, it 
being whyte and cleane, without any spot of blod or the lyke ! — yitt imediatly, 
whill her fingers was wpon it, the blood rushed owt of it, to the great admira- 
tioune 1 of all the behoulders, who tooke it for discoverie of the Murder, according 
to her owne prayers. — For ther was ane great lumpe of flesh taken out of his cheik, 
so smowthlie, as no rasor in the world cowld have made so ticht ane incisioune, 
wpon flesh, or cheis — and ther wes no blood at all in the wownd — nor did it at all 
blead, altho' that many persones befor had tuitched it, whill 2 shoe did tuitche it ! 
And the howse being searched all over, for the shirt of the dead man, yitt it cowld 

take the following: "Williame Richardsone, in Dalkeith, haiving felled ane hen of the 
said Cristianes with ane stone, and wpone her sight thereof did imediatly threatne him, 
and with ane frowneing countenance told him, that he ' should newer cast ane vther 
stone !' And imediatly the said Williame fell into ane franicie and madnes, and tooke 
his bed, and newer rose agane, but died within a few dayes : And in the tyme of his sick- 
nes, he always cryed owt, that the said Cristiane was present befor him, in the likeness 
of ane grey catt ! And some tyme eftir his death, James Richardsone, nephew to the 
said "Williame, being a boy playing in the said Cristiane her yaird, and be calling her 
Lantherne, shoe threatned, that, if he held not his peace, shoe sowld cause him to die 
the death his nephew (uncle) died of!' Whairby it would appeare that shoe tooke wpon 
hir his nepheas (uncle's) death." 

1 "Wonder ; amazement. 2 Until. That is, many previous trials had been made of other 
persons suspected, or of those who were near neighbours, perhaps living at enmity with 
the deceased, who had voluntarily offered themselves to this solemn ordeal, or had been 
called upon thus publicly to attest their innocence of his blood. 


50 NOTES. 

not be found ; and altho' the howse was full of people all that night, ever vatching 
the corpes j 1 neither did any of them tuitch him that night — which is probable 2 — 
yitt, in the morneing, his shirt was fownd tyed fast abowt his neck, as a brechame, 3 
non knowing how this come to pass ! And this Cristian did immediatlie transport 
all her owne goods owt of her own howse into her dowghter's, purposing to flie 
away — hot was therwpon apprehendit and imprisoned.' — Pitcaim's Criminal 
Trials t vol. iii. p. 194. 

Z a. " Master Leonard Lister."] This Leonard Lister was the brother 
of Master Thomas Lister, for whose murder Jennet Preston was indicted ; 
and married Ann, daughter of Loftus, of Coverham Abbey, county 

of York. 

Z 2 a. " His Lordship commanded the Iurie to obserue the particular 
circumstances."] The judge in this case was Altham, who seems even to 
have been more superstitious, bigotted, and narrow-minded than his brother 
in commission, Bromley. Fenner, who tried the witches of Warbois, and 
Archer, before whom the trial of Julian Cox took place, are the only judges 
I can meet with, quite on a level with this learned baron in grovelling absur- 
dity, upon whom " Jennet Preston would lay heavy at the time of his 
death," whether she had so Jain upon Mr. Thomas Lister or not, if bigotry, 
habit, and custom did not render him seared and callous to conscience and 

Z 3 b. " Take example by this Gentlemen to prosecute these hellish Furies 
to their end."] It is marvellous that Potts does not, like Delrio, recommend 
the rack to be applied to witches "in moderation, and according to the 
regulations of Pope Pius the Third, and so as not to cripple the criminal for 
life." Not that this learned Jesuit is much averse to simple dislocations 
occasioned by the rack. These, he thinks, cannot be avoided in the press 
of business. He is rather opposed, though in this he speaks doubtfully 
and with submission to authority, to those tortures which fracture the bones 
or lacerate the tendons. Verily, the Catholic and the Protestant author 
might have shaken hands ; they were, beyond dispute, poene Gemelli. 

Z 3 b. " Posterities."] Master Potts, of the particulars of whose life 
nothing is known, made, as far as can be discovered, no further attempt to 

1 Holding the lyke-wake. 2 Can be proved, by testimony or probation. a The 

large collar which goes about a draught-horse's neck. 

NOTES. 51 

acquire fame in the character of an author. No subject so interesting 
probably again occurred, as that which had diversified his legal pursuits 
" in his lodgings in Chancery-lane," from the pleasing recollections asso- 
ciated with his Summer Circuit of 1612. He was not, however, the only 
person of the name of Pott, or Potts, who distinguished himself in the field 
of Witchcraft. The author of the following tract, in my possession, might 
have garnished it with various flowers from the work now reprinted, if 
he had been aware of such a repository : " Pott (J oh. Henr.) De nefando 
Lamiarum cum Diabolo coitu." 4to. Lond. 1689. The other celebrated 
cases of supposed witchcraft occurring in the county of Lancaster, besides 
those connected with the foregoing republication, are, the extraordinary 
one of Ferdinand, Earl of Derby, who died at Latham in 1594, for which 
the reader is referred to Camden's Annals of Elizabeth, years 1593, 
1594; Kennet, 2. 574, 580; or Pennant's Tour from Downing to Alston 
Moor, p. 29 ; — the case of Edmund Hartley, hanged at Lancaster in 
1597, for bewitching some members of the family of Mr. Starkie, of 
Cle worth, which will be fully considered in the proposed republication of 
the Chetham Society, which gives the history of that event ; — and lastly, 
that of a person of the name of Utley, (Whitaker, p, 528 ; Baines, vol. i. 
p. 604,) who was hanged at Lancaster about 1630, for having bewitched to 
death Eichard, the son of Ralph Assheton, Esq., Lord of Middleton, of 
whose trial, unfortunately, no report is in existence. Webster also men- 
tions two supposed witches as having been put to death at Lancaster, 
within eighteen years before his Displaying of supposed Witchcraft was 
published ; and which occurrence, not referred to by any other historian, 
must therefore have taken place about the year 1654. 

Printed by Charles Simms and Co. 

Cfjetjjam jflRk ^onetg 





The Right Honourable The EARL OF DERBY. 
The Eight Honourable The EARL OF BALCARRES. 
The Right Honourable The EARL OF WILTON. 
The Right Honourable The EARL OF BURLINGTON. 
The Right Honourable the EARL GROSVENOR. 
The Right Honourable LORD FRANCIS EGERTON, M.P. 
The Right Honourable LORD STANLEY. 
The Right Reverend The Lord BISHOP OF CHESTER. 
The Right Reverend The Lord BISHOP OF ELY. 
The Right Reverend The Lord BISHOP OF NORWICH. 
The Right Reverend The Lord BISHOP OF CHICHESTER. 
The Right Honourable LORD DELAMERE. 
The Right Honourable LORD DE TABLEY. 
The Right Honourable LORD SKELMERSDALE. 
The Right Honourable SIR ROBERT PEEL, Bart., M.P. 


Edward Holme, M.D., President. 
Rev. Richard Parkinson, B.D., Canon of Manchester, Vice-President. 

Rev. George Dugard, M.A. 
Rev. C. G. Hulton, M.A. 

The Hon. and Very Rev. William Herbert, 

Dean of Manchester. 
George Ormerod, D.C.L., F.R.S. F.S.A., 

Sam. Hibbert Ware, M.D. F.R.S.E. 
Rev. Thomas Corser, M.A. 

Rev. J. Piccope, M.A. 

Rev. F. R. Raines, M.A., F.S.A. 

James Crossley. 

James Heywood, F.R.S. 


William Langton. 

Hon. Secretary. 

William Fleming, M.D. 


1. That the Society shall be limited to three hundred and fifty members. 

2. That the Society shall consist of members being subscribers of one pound annually, such 
subscription to be paid in advance, on or before the day of general meeting in each year. The 
first general meeting to be held on the 23rd day of March, 1843, and the general meeting in each 
year afterwards on the 1st day of March, unless it should fall on a Sunday, when some other day 
is to be named by the Council. 

3. That the affairs of the Society be conducted by a Council, consisting of a permanent 
President and Vice-President, and twelve other members, including a Treasurer and Secretary, 
all of whom, with the exception of the President and Vice-President, shall be elected at the 
general meeting of the Society. 

4. That any member may compound for his future subscriptions, by the payment of ten 

5. That the accounts of the receipts and expenditure of the Society be audited annually, by 
three auditors, to be elected at the general meeting ; and that any member who shall be one year 
in arrear of his subscription, shall no longer be considered as belonging to the Society. 

6. That every member not in arrear of his annual subscription, be entitled to a copy of each 
of the works published by the Society. 

7. That twenty copies of each work shall be allowed to the Editor of the same, in addition 
to the one to which he may be entitled as a member. 


For the Year 1844. 

Ackers, James, M.P., Heath House, Ludlow 

Addey, H. M., Liverpool 

Ainsworth, Ralph F., M.D., Manchester 

Ainsworth, Rev. Thomas, M.A., Hartford Hall, Cheshire 

Ainsworth, W. H., Kensal Manor House, Harrow-road, 

Alexander, Edward N., F.S.A., Halifax 
Allen, Rev. John Taylor, M.A., Stradbrooke Vicarage, 

Ambery, Charles, Manchester 

Armstrong, Thomas, Higher Broughton, Manchester 
Ashton John, Warrington 
Atherton, Miss, Kersal Cell, near Manchester 
Atherton, James, Swinton House, near Manchester 
, Atkinson, F. R. Pendleton, near Manchester 
Atkinson, William, Weaste, near Manchester 

i Balcarres, The Earl of, Haigh Hall, near Wigan 
I Baldwin, Rev. John, M.A., Dalton, near Ulverstone 

Bannerman, Alexander, Didsbury, near Manchester 
I Bannerman, Henry, Burnage, near Manchester 
i Bannerman, John, Swinton, near Manchester 
: Bardsley, Samuel Argent, M.D., Green Heys, near Man- 

Barker, John, Manchester 
I Barker, Thomas, Oldham 

Barratt, James, Jun., Manchester 

Barrow, Miss, Green Bank, near Manchester 
i Barrow, Rev. Andrew, President of Stonyhurst College, 
near Blackburn 

Barrow, Peter, Manchester 

Bartlemore, William, Castleton Hall, Rochdale 

Barton, John, Manchester 

Barton, R. W., Springwood, near Manchester 

Barton, Samuel, Didsbury, Manchester 

Barton, Thomas, Manchester 

Bayne, Rev. Thos. Vere, M.A., Broughton, Manchester 

Beamont, William, Warrington 

Beard, Rev. John R., D.D., Stony Knolls, near Man- 

Beardoe, James, Manchester 

Beever, James F., Manchester 

Bellairs, Rev. H. W., M.A., London 

Bentley, Rev. T. R., M.A., Manchester 

Birley, Hugh Hornby, Broom House, near Manchester 

Birley, Hugh, Didsbury, near Manchester 

Birley, Richard, Manchester 
Birley, Thos. H., Manchester 
Bohn, Henry G., London 
Booth, Benjamin W., Manchester 
Booth, John, Barton-upon-Irwell 
Booth, William, Manchester 
Boothman, Thomas, Ardwick, near Manchester 
Botfield, Beriah, M.P., Norton Hall, Northamptonshire 
Bower, George, London 
Brackenbury, Ralph, Manchester 
Bradbury, Charles, Salford 

Bradshaw, John, Weaste House, near Manchester 
Brooke, Edward, Manchester 
Brooks, Samuel, Manchester 
Broome, William, Manchester 
Brown, Robert, Preston 

Buckley, Edmund, M.P., Ardwick, near Manchester 
Buckley, Rev. Thomas, M.A., Old Trafford, near Man- 
Buckley, Nathaniel, F.L.S., Rochdale 
Burlington, The Earl of, HolkarHall 

Calvert, Robert, Salford 

Cardwell, Rev. Edward, D.D., Principal of St. Alban's Hall 

and Camden Professor, Oxford 
Cardwell, Edward, M.P., M.A., Regent's Park, London 
Chadwick, Elias, M.A., Swinton Hall, near Manchester 
Chesshyre, Mrs., Pendleton, near Manchester 
Chester, The Bishop of 
Chichester, The Bishop of 

Chippindall, John, Chetham Hill, near Manchester 
Clare, Peter, F.R.A.S., Manchester 
Clarke, George, Crumpsall, near Manchester 
Clayton, Japheth, Pendleton, near Manchester 
Clifton, Rev. R. C, M.A., Canon of Manchester 
Consterdine, James, Manchester 

Cook, Thomas, Gorse Field, Pendleton, near Manchester 
Cooper, William, Manchester 
Corser, George, Whitchurch, Shropshire 
Corser, Rev. Thomas, M.A., Stand, near Manchester 
Cottam, S. E., F.R.A.S., Manchester 
Coulthart, John Ross, Ashton-under-Lyne 
Crook, Thomas A., Rochdale 
Cross, William Assheton, Redscar, near Preston 
Crossley, George, Manchester 
Crossley, James, Manchester 


Crossley, John, M.A., Scaitcliffe House, Todmorden 
Currer, Miss Richardson, Eshton Hall, near Skipton 

Daniel, George, Manchester 

Darbishire, Samuel D., Manchester 

Darwell, James, Manchester 

Darwell, Thomas, Manchester 

Davies, John, M.W.S., Manchester 

Dawes, Matthew, F.G.S., Westbrooke, near Bolton 

Dearden, James, The Orchard, Rochdale 

Dearden, Thomas Ferrand, Rochdale 

Delamere, The Lord, Vale Royal, near North wich 

Derby, The Earl of, Knowsley 

Dilke, C. W., London 

Dinham, Thomas, Manchester 

Driver, Richard, Manchester 

Dugard, Rev. George, M.A., Birch, near Manchester 

Dyson, T. J., Tower, 1 . London 

Earle, Richard, Edenhurst, near Prescott 

Eccles, William, Wigan 

Egerton, The Lord Francis, M.P., Worsley Hall 

Egerton, Sir Philip de Malpas Grey, Bart., M.P., Oulton 

Park, Tarporley 
Egerton, Wilbraham, Tatton Park 
Ely, The Bishop of 
Eyton, J. W. K., F.S.A. L. & E., Elgin Villa, Leamington 

Faulkner, George, Manchester 

Feilden, Joseph, Witton, near Blackburn 

Fenton, James, Jun., Lymm Hall, Cheshire 

Fernley, John, Manchester 

Ffarrington, J. Nowell, Worden, near Chorley 

Ffrance, Thomas Robert Wilson, Rawcliffe Hall, Garstang 

Fleming, Thomas, Pendleton, near Manchester 

Fleming, William, M.D., Ditto 

Fletcher, John, Haulgh, near Bolton 

Fletcher, Samuel, Broomfield, near Manchester 

Fletcher, Samuel, Ardwick,near Manchester 

Flintoff, Thomas, Manchester 

Ford, Henry, Manchester 

Fraser, James W., Manchester 

Frere, W. E., Rottingdean, Sussex 

Gardner, Thomas, Worcester College, Oxford 

Garner, J. G., Manchester 

Garnett, William James, Quernmore Park, Lancaster 

Germon, Rev. Nicholas, M.A., High Master, Free Grammar 

School, Manchester 
Gibb, William, Manchester 
Gladstone, Robertson, Liverpool 
Gladstone, Robert, Withington, near Manchester 
Gordon, Hunter, Manchester 
Gould, John, Manchester 
Grant, Daniel, Manchester 
Grave, Joseph, Manchester 
Gray, Benjamin, B.A., Trinity Coll. Cambridge 
Gray, James, Manchester 
Greaves, John, Irlam Hall, near Manchester 
Greenall, G., Walton Hall, near Warrington 

Grey, The Hon. William Booth 

Grosvenor, The Earl 

Grundy, George, Chetham Fold, near Manchester 

Hadfield, George, Manchester 

Hailstone, Edward, F.S.A., Horton Hall, Bradford, York- 

Hardman, Henry, Bury, Lancashire 

Hardy, William, Manchester 

Hargreaves, George J., Hulme, Manchester 

Harland, John, Manchester 

Harrison, William, Brearey, Isle of Man 

Harter, James Collier, Broughton Hall, near Manchester 

Harter, William, Hope Hall, near Manchester 

Hately, Isaiah, Manchester 

Hatton, James, Richmond House, near Manchester 

Hawkins, Edward, F.R.S., F.S.A., F.L.S., British Museum 

Heelis, Stephen, Manchester 

Henshaw, William, Manchester 

Herbert, Hon. and Very Rev. Wm., Dean of Manchester 

Heron, Rev. George, M.A., Carrington, Cheshire 

Heywood, Sir Benjamin, Bart., Claremont, near Man- 

Heywood, James, F.R.S., F.G.S., Acresfield, near Man- 

Heywood, John Pemberton, near Liverpool 

Heywood, Thomas, F.S.A., Hope End, Ledbury, Hereford- 

Heywood, Thomas, Pendleton, near Manchester 

Heyworth, Lawrence, Oakwood, near Stockport 

Hibbert, Mrs., Salford 

Hickson, Charles, Manchester 

Hinde, Rev. Thomas, M.A., Winwick, Warrington 

Hoare, G. M., The Lodge, Morden, Surrey 

Hoare, P. R., Kelsey Park, Beckenham, Kent 

Holden, Thomas, Summerfield, Bolton 

Holden, Thomas, Rochdale 

Holme, Edward, M.D., Manchester 

Hughes, William, Old Trafford, near Manchester 

Hulme, Davenport, M.D., Manchester 

Hulme, Hamlet, Medlock Vale, Manchester 

Hulton, Rev. A. H., M.A., Ashton-under-Lyne 

Hulton, Rev. C. G., M.A., Chetham College, Manchester 

Hulton, H. T., Manchester 

Hulton, W. A., Preston 

Hunter, Rev. Joseph, F.S.A. , London 

Jackson, H. B., Manchester 

Jackson, Joseph, Ardwick, near Manchester 

Jacson, Charles R., Barton Lodge, Preston 

James, Rev. J. G, M.A., Habergham Eaves, near Burnley 

James, Paul Moon, Summerville, near Manchester 

Jemmett, William Thomas, Manchester 

Johnson, W. R., Manchester 

Johnson, Rev. W. W., M.A., Manchester 

Jones, Jos., Jun., Hathershaw, Oldham 

Jones, W., Manchester 

Jordan, Joseph, Manchester 


Kay, James, Turton Tower, Bolton 
Kay, Samuel, Manchester 
Kelsall, Strettle, Manchester 
Kendrick, James, M.D., F.L.S., Warrington 
I Kennedy, John, Ardwick House, near Manchester 
Ker, George Portland, Salford 
Kershaw, James, Green Heys, near Manchester 
Kidd, Rev. W. J., M.A., Didshury, near Manchester 

Langton, William, Manchester 

Larden, Rev. G. E., M.A., Brotherton Vicarage, Yorkshire 

Leeming, W. B., Salford 

Legh, G. Cornwall, M.P., F.G.S., High Legh, Cheshire 

Legh, Rev. Peter, M. A., Newton in Makerfield 

Leigh, Rev. Edward Trafford, M.A., Cheadle, Cheshire 

Leigh, Henry, Moorfield Cottage, Worsley 

Leresche, J. H., Manchester 

Lloyd, William Horton, F.S.A., L.S., Park-square, London 

Lloyd, Edward Jeremiah, Oldfield House, Altringham 

Lomas, Edward, Manchester 

Lomax, Robert, Harwood, near Bolton 

Love, Benjamin, Manchester 

Lowndes, William, Egremont, Liverpool 

Loyd, Edward, Green Hill, Manchester 

Lycett, W. E., Manchester 

Lyon, Edmund, M.D., Manchester 

Lyon, Thomas, Appleton Hall, Warrington 

McClure, William, Peel Cottage, Eccles 

McFarlane, John, Manchester 

McKenzie, John Whitefoord, Edinburgh 

McYicar, John, Manchester 

Mann, Robert, Manchester 

Mare, E. R. Le, School Lodge, Cheshire 

Markland, J. H., F.R.S., F.S.A-, Bath 

Markland, Thomas, Mab Field, near Manchester 

Marsden, G. E., Manchester 

Marsden, William, Manchester 

Marsh, John Fitchett, Warrington 

Marshall, Miss, Ardwick, near Manchester 

Marshall, William, Penwortham Hall, Preston 

Marshall, Frederick Earnshaw, Ditto 

Marshall, John, Ditto 

Mason, Thomas, Copt Hewick, near Ripon 

Master, Rev. Robert M., M.A., Burnley 

Maude, Daniel, M.A., Salford 

Millar, Thomas, Green Heys, near Manchester 

Molyneux, Edward, Chetham Hill, Manchester 

Monk, John, Manchester 

Moore, John, F.L.S., Cornbrook, near Manchester 

Mosley, Sir Oswald, Bart., Rolleston Hall, Staffordshire 

Murray, James, Manchester 

Nield, William, Mayfield, Manchester 

Nelson, George, Manchester 

Neville, James, Beardwood, near Blackburn 

Newall, Mrs. Robert, Littleborough, near Rochdale 

Newall, W. N., Wellington Lodge, Littleborough 

Newbery, Henry, Manchester 

Nicholson, William, Thelwall Hall, Warrington 

Norris, Edward, Manchester 
Norwich, The Bishop of 

Ormerod, George, D.C.L., F.R.S., F.S.A., F.G.S., Sedbury 

Park, Gloucestershire 
Ormerod, George Wareing, M.A., F.G.S., Manchester 
Ormerod, Henry Mere, Manchester 
Owen, John, Manchester 

Parkinson, Rev. Richard, B.D., Canon of Manchester 
Patten, J. Wilson, M.P., Bank Hall, Warrington 
Pedley, Rev. J. T., M.A., Peakirk-cum-Glinton, Market 

Peel, Sir Robert, Bart., M.P., Drayton Manor 
Peel, George, Brookfield, Cheadle 
Peel, Joseph, Singleton Brook, near Manchester 
Peet, Thomas, Manchester 
Pegge, John, Newton Heath, near Manchester 
Percival, Stanley, Liverpool 
Philips, Mark, M.P., The Park, Manchester 
Philippi, Frederick Theod., Belfield Hall, near Rochdale 
Phillips, Shakspeare, Barlow Hall, near Manchester 
Phillipps, Sir Thomas, Bart., Middle Hill, Worcestershire 
Piccope, Rev. John, M.A., Farndon, Cheshire 
Pickford, Thomas, Mayfield, Manchester 
Pickford, Thomas E., Manchester 
Pierpoint, Benjamin, Warrington 
Pilkington, George, Manchester 
Pilling, Charles R., Caius College, Cambridge 
Plant, George, Manchester 
Pooley, Edward, Manchester 
Pooley, John, Hulme, near Manchester 
Porrett, Robert, Tower, London 
Prescott, J. C, Summerville, near Manchester 
Price, John Thomas, Manchester 

Radford, Thomas, M.D., Higher Broughton, near Man- 

Raffles, Rev. Thomas, D.D., LL.D., Liverpool 

Raikes, Rev. Henry, M. A., Hon. Can., and Chancellor of 

Raines, Rev. F. R., M.A., F.S.A., Milnrow Parsonage, 

Reiss, Leopold, High Field, near Manchester 

Rickards, Charles H., Manchester 

Ridgway, Mrs., Ridgemont, near Bolton 

Ridgway, John Withenshaw, Manchester 

Robson, John, Warrington 

Roberts, W. J., Liverpool 

Roby, John, M.R.S.L., Rochdale 

Royds, Albert Hudson, Rochdale 

Samuels, John, Manchester 

Sattersfield, Joshua, Manchester 

Scholes, Thomas Seddon, High Bank, near Manchester 

Schuster, Leo, Weaste, near Manchester 

Sharp, John, Lancaster 

Sharp, Robert C, Bramall Hall, Cheshire 

Sharp, Thomas B., Manchester 

Sharp, William, Lancaster 


Sharp, William, London 
Simms, Charles S., Manchester 
Simms, George, Manchester 
Skaife, John, Blackhurn 
Skelmersdale, The Lord, Lathom House 
Smith, Rev. Jeremiah, D.D., Leamington 
Smith, Junius, Strangeways Hall, Manchester 
Smith, J. R., Old Compton-street, London 
Sowler, R. S., Manchester 
Sowler, Thomas, Manchester 
Spear, John, Manchester 
Standish, W. J., Duxbury Hall, Chorley 
Stanley, The Lord, Knowsley 
Sudlow, John, Jun., Manchester 

Swain, Charles, M.R.S.L., Cheetwood Priory, near Man- 
Swanwick, Josh. W., Hollins Vale, Bury, Lancashire 

Tabley, The Lord De, Tabley, Cheshire 
Tattershall, Rev. Thomas, D.D., Liverpool 
Tatton, Thos., Withenshaw, Cheshire 
Tayler, Rev. John James, B.A., Manchester 
Taylor, Thomas Frederick, Wigan 
Teale, Josh., Salford 
Thomson, James, Manchester 
Thorley, George, Manchester 
Thorpe, Robert, Manchester 
Tobin, Rev. John, M.A., Liscard, Cheshire 
Townend, John, Polygon, Manchester 
Townend, Thomas, Polygon, Manchester 

Turnbull, W. B., D.D., Edinburgh 

Turner, Samuel, F.R.S, F.S.A., F.G.S., Liverpool 

Turner, Thomas, Manchester 

Vitre, Edward Denis De, M.D., Lancaster 

Walker, John, Weaste, near Manchester 

Walker, Samuel, Prospect Hill, Pendleton 

Wanklyn, J. B., Salford 

Wanklyn, James H., Crumpsall House, near Manchester 

Warburton, R. E. E., Arley Hall, near Northwich 

Ware, Samuel Hibbert, M.D., F.R.S.E., Edinburgh 

Wareing, Ralph, Manchester 

Westhead, Joshua P., Manchester 

Whitehead, James, Manchester 

Whitelegg, Rev. William, M.A., Hulme, near Manchester 

Whitmore, Edward, Jun., Manchester 

Whitmore, Henry, Manchester 

Wilson, William James, Manchester 

Wilton, The Earl of, Heaton House 

Winter, Gilbert, Stocks, near Manchester 

Worthington, Edward, Manchester 

Wray, Rev. Cecil Daniel, M.A., Canon of Manchester 

Wright, Rev. Henry, M.A., Mottram, St. Andrew's, near 

Wroe, Thomas, Manchester 

Yates, Joseph B., West Dingle, Liverpool 
Yates, Richard, Manchester 

THE YEAR 1843. 

Brereton's Travels. 

The Lancashire Civil War Tracts. 

Chester's Triumph in Honor of her Prince. 


Pott's Discovery of Witches in the County of Lancaster, from the edition of 1613. 

The Life of the Rev. Adam Martindale, Vicar of Rostherne, in Cheshire, from the MS. in 
the British Museum. (4239 Ascough's Catalogue.) 

Dee's Compendious Rehearsal, and other Autobiographical Tracts, not included in the recent 
Publication of the Camden Society edited by Mr. Halliwell, with his Collected correspondence. 

Iter Lancastrense, by Dr. Richard James ; an English Poem, written in 1636, containing a 
Metrical Account of some of the Principal Families and Mansions in Lancashire ; from the 
unpublished MS. in the Bodleian Library, Oxford. 


Selections from the Unpublished Correspondence of the Rev. John Whittaker, Author 
of the History of Manchester, and other Works. 

More's (George) Discourse concerning the Possession and Dispossession of Seven Persons in 
one Family in Lancashire, from a Manuscript formerly belonging to Thoresby, and which gives 
a much fuller Account of that Transaction than the Printed Tract of 1600 ; with a Biblio- 
graphical and Critical Review of the Tracts in the Darrel Controversy. 

A Selection of the most Curious Papers and Tracts relating to the Pretender's Stay in 
Manchester in 1745, in Print and Manuscript. 

Proceedings of the Presbyterian Classis of Manchester and the Neighbourhood, from 1646 to 
1660, from an Unpublished Manuscript. 

Catalogue of the Alchemical Library of John Webster, of Clitheroe, from a Manuscript in 
the Rev. T. Corser's possession ; with a fuller Life of him, and List of his Works, than has yet 

Correspondence between Samuel Hartlib (the Friend of Milton), and Dr. Worthington, 
of Jesus College, Cambridge (a native of Manchester), from 1655 to 1661, on various Literary 

B Antiquities concerning Cheshire," by Randall Minshull, written A.D. 1591, from a MS. in 
the Gough Collection. 

Register of the Lancaster Priory, from a MS. (No. 3764) in the Harleian Collection. 

Selections from the Visitations of Lancashire in 1533, 1567, and 1613, in the Herald's College, 
British Museum, Bodleian, and Caius College Libraries. 

Selections from Dodsworth's MSB. in the Bodleian Library, Randal Holmes's Collections for 
Lancashire and Cheshire (MSS. Harleian), and Warburton's Collections for Cheshire (MSS. 

Annales Cestrienses, or Chronicle of St. Werburgh, from the MS. in the British Museum. 

A Reprint of Henry Bradshaw's Life and History of St. Werburgh, from the very rare 4to. 
of 1521, printed by Pynson. 

The Letters and Correspondence of Sir William Brereton, from the original MSS., in 5 vols, 
folio, in the British Museum. 

A Poem, by Laurence Bostock, on the subject of the Saxon and Norman Earls of Chester. 

Bishop Gastrell's Notitia Cestriensis, on the subject of the Ecclesiastical Antiquities of the 
Diocese of Chester, from the original MS. 

History of the Earldom of Chester, collected by Archbishop Parker, entitled De Succes- 
sione Comitum Cestrise a Hugone Lupo ad Johannem Scoticum, from the original MS. in Ben'et 
College Library, Cambridge. 

Volume of Funeral Certificates of Lancashire and Cheshire. 

Volume of Early Lancashire and Cheshire Wills. 

A Selection of Papers relating to the Rebellion of 1715, including Clarke's Journal of the 
March of the Rebels from Carlisle to Preston. 

A Memoir of the Chetham Family, from original documents. 

The Diary of the Rev. Henry Newcome, M.A., from the original MS. in the possession of 
his descendant, the Rev. Thomas Newcome, M.A., Rector of Shenley, Herts. 

Lucianus Monacus de laude Cestrie, a Latin MS. of the 13th century, descriptive of the 
walls, gates, &c, of the City of Chester, formerly belonging to Thomas Allen, DD., and now in 
the Bodleian Library, Oxford. 

Richard Robinson's Golden Mirrour, Bk. lett. 4to. Lond., 1580. Containing Poems on the 
Etymology of the names of several Cheshire Families ; from the exceedingly rare copy formerly 
in the collection of Richard Heber, Esq., (see Cat. pt. iv. 2413,) and now in the British Museum. 

A volume of the early Ballad Poetry of Lancashire. 

The Coucher Book of Whalley Abbey. 



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